Skip to main content
Select Source:

Chinook

Chinook

ETHNONYMS: Cheenook, Tchinouks, Tsniuk

The Chinook are an American Indian group who joined the Chehalis Indians and other tribes of Oregon and Washington in the mid-nineteenth century following the decimation of their tribe by smallpox epidemics in 1782-1783, 1830-1833, and 1853. In the 1970s the descendants of the Chinook resided on or near the Chehalis Indian Reservation in Washington. The Chinook language is classified in the Penutian language phylum. In the late 1700s the Chinook numbered about two thousand and occupied the region of the lower Columbia River and the adjoining coastal area in Oregon and Washington. The Chinook included the Lower Chinook groups (Chinook, Clatsop, and Shoalwater) and the Middle groups (Clackamas, Cathlamet, and Wahkiakum).

Salmon fishing was their principal economic activity, but gathering berries and nuts and hunting deer, elk, and small game were also important. Autonomous villages were led by chiefs, and local society was divided into an upper class of chiefs, shamans, warriors, and traders, a class of commoners, and a slave class. Traditional religious life centered around guardian spirits sought through fasting and prayer in adolescence.

Bibliography

Boas, Franz (1911). Chinook. U.S. Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin no. 40, 559-678. Washington, D.C.

Ruby, Robert H., and John A. Brown (1976). The Chinook Indians. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Chinook." Encyclopedia of World Cultures. . Encyclopedia.com. 14 Dec. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Chinook." Encyclopedia of World Cultures. . Encyclopedia.com. (December 14, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/chinook-0

"Chinook." Encyclopedia of World Cultures. . Retrieved December 14, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/chinook-0

chinook (warm, dry air mass)

chinook, warm, dry air mass that descends the eastern slopes of the U.S. and Canadian Rocky Mts. after having lost moisture by condensation over the western slopes. Chinooks occur mainly in winter. They sometimes replace the cold continental air mass over the western plains, causing rapid melting of snow and temperature increases as great as 40°F (22°C) within a few hours. Similar winds occurring in the Alps and elsewhere are known as foehn winds. The term chinook was originally applied by Oregon settlers to a moist Pacific wind blowing from the direction of a Chinook camp.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"chinook (warm, dry air mass)." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 14 Dec. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"chinook (warm, dry air mass)." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (December 14, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/chinook-warm-dry-air-mass

"chinook (warm, dry air mass)." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved December 14, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/chinook-warm-dry-air-mass

Chinook (indigenous people of North America)

Chinook (shĬnŏŏk´, chĬ–), Native American tribe of the Penutian linguistic stock. Altogether twelve main tribes spoke Chinook languages; all were in the Columbia River valley. The Chinook themselves were on the lower extremity of the river and, with the Clatsop, constituted the now extinct Lower Chinook branch of the linguistic stock (see Native American languages). The village was their main social unit, and a wealthy chief might control several villages. Slavery was common among the Chinook. Their food consisted mostly of fish, roots, and berries. They were skilled with canoes, were noted traders, and practiced the custom of potlatch. They lacked the totemic art and the secret societies of their neighbors. They were well known to the traders on the Pacific coast in the late 18th cent., and a corrupted form of their language known as Chinook jargon served as a trade language from the Columbia River to Alaska. There were some 800 Chinook in the United States in 1990, working primarily in fishing, logging, and lumbering.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Chinook (indigenous people of North America)." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 14 Dec. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Chinook (indigenous people of North America)." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (December 14, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/chinook-indigenous-people-north-america

"Chinook (indigenous people of North America)." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved December 14, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/chinook-indigenous-people-north-america

chinook

chi·nook / shəˈnoŏk; chə-/ • n. 1. (also chinook wind) a warm dry wind that blows down the east side of the Rocky Mountains at the end of winter. 2. (also chinook salmon) a large North Pacific salmon that is an important commercial food fish. • Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, family Salmonidae.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"chinook." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Encyclopedia.com. 14 Dec. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"chinook." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Encyclopedia.com. (December 14, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/chinook-1

"chinook." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Retrieved December 14, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/chinook-1

Chinook

Chinook Native American tribe living along the Pacific coast from the Columbia River to The Dalles, Oregon. Although numbering fewer than 1000, the Chinook travelled widely and the Chinook language was used by others, native and European, during the settlement of the West. The name is also given to a warm, dry wind on the e side of the Rocky Mountains.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Chinook." World Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. 14 Dec. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Chinook." World Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. (December 14, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/chinook

"Chinook." World Encyclopedia. . Retrieved December 14, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/chinook

Chinook

Chi·nook / shəˈnoŏk; chə-/ • n. (pl. same or -nooks ) 1. a member of an American Indian people originally inhabiting the region around the lower Columbia River in Oregon and Washington. 2. the language of this people. • adj. of or relating to the Chinook or their language.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Chinook." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Encyclopedia.com. 14 Dec. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Chinook." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Encyclopedia.com. (December 14, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/chinook-0

"Chinook." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Retrieved December 14, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/chinook-0

chinook

chinook A warm, dry, westerly wind of the föhn type which blows on the eastern side of the Rocky Mountains. The quick onset of the wind and the sudden large rise in temperature is associated in spring with rapid melting of the snow.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"chinook." A Dictionary of Ecology. . Encyclopedia.com. 14 Dec. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"chinook." A Dictionary of Ecology. . Encyclopedia.com. (December 14, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/chinook-0

"chinook." A Dictionary of Ecology. . Retrieved December 14, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/chinook-0

chinook

chinook Warm, dry, westerly wind of the Föhn type which blows on the eastern side of the Rocky Mountains. The quick onset of the wind and the sudden large rise in temperature is associated in spring with rapid melting of the snow.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"chinook." A Dictionary of Earth Sciences. . Encyclopedia.com. 14 Dec. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"chinook." A Dictionary of Earth Sciences. . Encyclopedia.com. (December 14, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/chinook

"chinook." A Dictionary of Earth Sciences. . Retrieved December 14, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/chinook

Chinook

Chinookbetook, book, brook, Brooke, Chinook, chook, Coke, cook, Cooke, crook, forsook, Gluck, hook, look, mistook, nook, partook, rook, schnook, schtuck, Shilluk, shook, Tobruk, took, undercook, undertook •handbook •chapbook, scrapbook •cash book • passbook • sketchbook •chequebook • textbook •daybook, playbook •casebook • phrase book • dybbuk •pocketbook • copybook • storybook •guidebook • logbook • songbook •scorebook • hornbook • sourcebook •notebook • cookbook • yearbook •picture book • wordbook • workbook •caoutchouc • Windhoek • billhook •fishhook • skyhook • buttonhook •tenterhook • wet look • outlook •Inuk • inglenook • Sihanouk •Pembroke • Innsbruck • donnybrook •Uruk • Osnabrück • Beaverbrook •nainsook

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Chinook." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Encyclopedia.com. 14 Dec. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Chinook." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Encyclopedia.com. (December 14, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/chinook

"Chinook." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Retrieved December 14, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/chinook