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Presbyterians

Presbyterians

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Beginnings. Among the earliest Puritan settlers in New England were many with a presbyterial orientation in which ministers and elders from congregations formed the governing body within a given district. When the Presbyterians gained ascendancy during the English Civil War, New England nearly adopted their view that church membership should be open to all who followed Gods commandments and that congregations should relinquish some of their authority to higher councils of ministers and elders in order to maintain standards and prevent unscriptural practices and theological errors from creeping into the church. When this did not come to pass, individual congregations quietly followed presbyterian practices under either a Congregational or Presbyterian minister.

Makemie. The Irish Presbyterian minister Francis Makemie is credited with joining these scattered congregations into an organized denomination. An inveterate traveler, he first arrived in 1683 to journey throughout the mainland colonies and Barbados, preaching and organizing churches as he went. His appeals to his English, Scottish, and Irish brethren for clergy attracted much-needed ministers to these new churches. In 1706 he organized the first presbytery in Philadelphia, attended by seven local ministers and their elders. Within ten years there were four presbyteries and a synod operating. A few months after the first presbytery meeting, Makemie became the center of attention when Edward Hyde, Viscount Cornbury, governor of New York, had him arrested for preaching without a license. His defense was that he had been granted a license as a dissenting minister in Barbados, which was valid in all British domains. The court acquitted him, but a vengeful Cornbury charged him to pay the entire cost of the trial. New Yorkers were so incensed that the assembly passed a law prohibiting such assessments and got Cornbury recalled in disgrace. By this time Makemie had died, but the publicity brought the infant Presbyterian Church to the favorable attention of many dissenters who moved into the Presbyterian fold.

Adopting Act. From its inception the Calvinist theology and presbyterial organization of the Presbyterian Church attracted Protestants of many flavors, and the church worked closely with other denominations in worship, ministerial education, and mutual support. Within its fold were people from Scotland, Ireland, England, Wales, Sweden, Germany, and France. Bringing such diverse elements into a consensus on the essentials of an American denomination was a great challenge. The most divisive issues of congregational autonomy and subscription to the Westminster Confession of Faith found adherents settling into three identifiable positions. The Scots sat at one end of the spectrum, favoring a highly centralized government and strict adherence to the Westminster Confession; the New Englanders were poised at the opposite end, espousing more congregational autonomy and no subscription to any man-made creed; and the Irish occupied the middle ground. Debates raged from 1721 until 1729 when a compromise was reached in the Adopting Act. The synod adopted the Westminster Confession but required its members to subscribe only to the essential doctrines it contained and merely recommended the Westminster Directory as a guide to church government.

Growth. Presbyterians formed the fastest-growing religious group in the eighteenth century, primarily because of the large influx of Irish immigrants. As Dissenters these Presbyterians had endured religious persecution for decades in Ireland, but the eighteenth century also brought economic hardship. Waves of Irish Presbyterians flooded into the middle and southern colonies, which tolerated their religious beliefs, and flowed into the unoccupied western regions. Some were established congregations who brought their ministers with them; most immigrated as individuals or in small family groups and were followed by clergymen.

Congregations. Most of these immigrants dispersed into scattered farms and so had to travel some distance to attend services. They usually formed small congregations which had trouble supporting a minister. Before a congregation could call a minister, each family had to pledge what it could contribute to his salary in the form of money, firewood, food, or services. If this was not sufficient, two or three congregations shared a minister and conducted their own services when he was engaged at another church. Most clergymen had to find supplementary support and moonlighted as farmers, teachers, and physicians. The synod assigned settled ministers to hold services in the vacant congregations, but they often got lost trying to find them. Larger congregations relied on pew rents, with the more desirable pews going for a higher rent. Worship services were similar to those of the early Puritans and later Congregationalists in New England, except that several congregations might join in the sacrament of the Lords Supper, which sometimes lasted for two days. One minister would preach a sermon of preparation, after which the local clergy dispensed communion tokens to worthy members. These were their ticket to sit at the rough tables which were roped off to keep out the undeserving.

Revivals. Within this porous, multinational, and loosely organized denomination the one common denominator was a desire for conversion. About 1726 a young minister in New Jersey, Gilbert Tennent, became acquainted with Theodorus Frelinghuysen, a neighboring Dutch Reform clergyman who was preaching emotional sermons urging personal conversion. Tennent wanted to spark his own revivals and was soon joined by his brothers and a few others who had been tutored by Gilberts father in what later was known as the Log College. They began to intrude on other congregations and accuse the regular clergy of being unconverted and thus not able to lead others to regeneration. Several of Tennents followers could not meet the stringent education standard required of ministers by the Westminster Directory and fought to rescind it. There was some sympathy for their position, for lowering these standards would make more ministers available for all those vacant congregations. The synod compromised by passing an Examination Act in 1738, which served until it established an official seminary with the requisite course of study. Those ministerial candidates without a university degree were examined by a synod committee which could attest to their learning. When the supporters of revivals persisted and tried to repeal this act as well, the synod prepared to censor them.

Great Awakening. George Whitefield arrived in 1739, sparking his own revivals and lending legitimacy to the process. It grew and became more insistent on the irrelevancy of a settled and educated clergy. Eventually the synod split into the moderate Old Side Synod of Philadelphia and the revivalist New Side Synod of New York. After the emotions of the Great Awakening quieted, however, both of these synods maintained the standards and organization that had been set earlier: an educated ministry, adherence to the essential doctrines of the Westminster Confession of Faith, and a moderately centralized church government. They only remained separated until 1758 because of the hatreds engendered among local congregations who had split during the revivals.

Sources

Jon Butler, Power, Authority, and the Origins of American Denominational Order: The English Churches in the Delaware Valley, 16801730 (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1978);

Elizabeth Nybakken, New Light on the Old Side: Irish Influences on Colonial Presbyterianism, Journal of American History, 68 (1982): 813832;

Sally Schwartz, A Mixed Multitude: The Struggle for Toleration in Colonial Pennsylvania (New York: New York University Press, 1987);

Leonard J. Trinterud, The Forming of an American Tradition: A Reexamination of Colonial Presbyterianism (Freeport, N.Y.: Books for Library Press, 1949).

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presbyterians

presbyterians were supporters of Calvinism, preaching the doctrine of the elect and advocating church government by a hierarchy of courts—the kirk session, the presbytery in a locality, the synod in a region, and the general assembly, consisting of ministers and elders, governing the whole church. Ultimate authority was the Bible and services gave great prominence to preaching. The leading exponent of presbyterianism in the Elizabethan church was Thomas Cartwright, responsible for the millenary petition to James I in 1603, which objected to surplices, bowing at the name of Jesus, and other ceremonies. They were in strong opposition to Archbishop Laud, and after his imprisonment dominated the Westminster Assembly called by Parliament in 1643 to reform the church. The Westminster Confession which they put forward and which was accepted by Parliament in 1648 was a presbyterian statement and the basis for their domination during the Commonwealth and Protectorate. Bishops were abolished, statues and pictures removed, ceremonies cleansed. In Scotland, presbyterianism, brought by John Knox from Geneva in 1559, made rapid progress and was the core of the Solemn League and covenant, adopted in 1643.

After the Restoration, the fortunes of English and Scottish presbyterianism diverged. In England, hopes of a compromise with the Church of England faded fast and many of the 2,000 ministers forced out by the Act of Uniformity in 1662 were presbyterians. Thereafter, presbyterianism formed a declining dissenting sect, vulnerable to socinian and unitarian arguments in the early 18th cent. and outdistanced by the methodists in the later 18th cent. The Presbyterian Church in England, re-established in 1844, was reported to have only 76 places of worship in 1851—one-fifth the number of quaker meeting-houses. After severe persecution in the reigns of Charles II and James II, the Scottish presbyterians emerged triumphant in 1690, when their church was recognized as the established Church of Scotland. Its special position was guaranteed by the Act of Union of 1707.

J. A. Cannon

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presbytery

pres·by·ter·y / ˈprezbəˌterē; ˈpres-; -bətrē/ • n. (pl. -ter·ies) 1. [treated as sing. or pl.] a body of church elders and ministers, esp. (in Presbyterian churches) an administrative body (court) representing all the local congregations of a district. ∎  a district represented by such a body of elders and ministers. 2. the house of a Roman Catholic parish priest. 3. chiefly Archit. the eastern part of a church chancel beyond the choir; the sanctuary.

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Presbyterianism

Presbyterianism, form of Christian church organization based on administration by a hierarchy of courts composed of clerical and lay presbyters. Holding a position between episcopacy (government by bishops) and Congregationalism (government by local congregation), Presbyterianism sought a return to the early practice of appointed elders as described in the New Testament.

Church Organization

The basic spiritual order of the church is composed of the presbyters (elders), all of equal status, divided into teaching elders (ministers) and ruling elders. The deacons and trustees complete the order; they may manage temporal affairs. The presiding minister and ruling elders make up the session or consistory; it is the first in the hierarchy of courts. Since both the minister and ruling elders are elected by the congregation, the Presbyterian polity is ultimately determined by the people.

Appeal from the session may be made to the presbytery or colloquy, the next highest court. The presbytery includes equal numbers of ministers and lay elders. The presbytery holds jurisdiction over church properties and ministers and confirms a church's call to a minister. The synod, the next court in the hierarchy, consists of ministers and elders from a stated number of presbyteries; it exercises limited supervisory authority over both presbyteries and congregations. Finally, there is the general assembly, composed of lay and clerical representatives in equal numbers, which meets annually to supervise the interests of the whole denomination.

Beliefs

Spiritually, Presbyterianism embodies the principles of Calvinism and forms the main branch of the Reformed churches. The Westminster Confession (see creed) and the Larger and Shorter Catechism composed by the Westminster Assembly, convened (1643–49) by the British Parliament, provide the doctrinal and liturgical standards for Presbyterian churches. These assert the sovereignty of God and the prime authority of Scripture as guides to church doctrine. The Bible is held to be the rule of government and discipline, as well as faith. Presbyterians accept the sacraments of baptism and the Lord's Supper. They are opposed to state interference in ecclesiastical affairs.

Presbyterianism in Europe

Calvinism first influenced the Protestant churches of Geneva and of the Huguenots. In the Netherlands the Protestant church was Presbyterian in government but not independent of the state until the middle of the 19th cent. By the mid-16th cent., Presbyterian sentiment was strong in England and Scotland. The English Presbyterians were never numerous after Oliver Cromwell's time; in 1876 various branches united to form the Presbyterian Church of England. In 1972 this church merged with the Congregational Church in England and Wales to become the United Reformed Church in Great Britain, now with an estimated 150,000 adult members (1997). The Church of Scotland (see Scotland, Church of), founded in 1557 under the leadership of John Knox, is the only Presbyterian state church established by law; however, it maintains the traditional independence from the state. There are an estimated 641,000 members (1997). Presbyterianism in Northern Ireland began early in the 17th cent. The Presbyterian Church in Ireland (1840) is the principal body; it has an estimated 300,000 members (1997). The largest Protestant church of Wales, the Calvinistic Methodist Church (also called the Presbyterian Church of Wales), has an estimated 45,700 members (1998). The World Presbyterian Alliance merged with the International Congregational Council in 1970 to form the World Alliance of Reformed Churches.

Presbyterianism in America

Presbyterians were to be found in most of the English colonies of North America. Through the efforts of Francis Makemie, a missionary from Ireland (1683), the first presbytery in America was formed at Philadelphia in 1706; a synod was constituted in 1716. New England had its own synod (1775–82). In the 18th cent. American Presbyterians divided temporarily over the question of revivals and evangelism: the Old School rejected them; the group known as the New School encouraged them. Before the Revolution the Presbyterians established the College of New Jersey, now Princeton. The General Assembly of 1789 in Philadelphia represented a united Presbyterian Church. A Plan of Union with the Congregational associations of New England that existed from 1792 until 1837 was disrupted when the Old School Presbyterians, favoring separate denominational agencies for missionary and evangelistic work, prevailed. The Presbyterian Board of Foreign Missions was then established.

Until 1982 the main body of Presbyterianism in North America was the United Presbyterian Church in the United States of America. It was formed by the merger (1958) of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America, descending from the Philadelphia presbytery of 1706, and the United Presbyterian Church of North America, which had been constituted (1858) by a union of two older churches. In 1983, the United Presbyterian Church in the United States of America merged with the second largest body, the Presbyterian Church in the United States (also known as the "Southern Presbyterian Church" ), to form the Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.); it is now the main body, with about 3.6 million members (1997). Thus was healed the major division in American Presbyterianism, which originated shortly before the Civil War over the issue of slavery and resulted in the formation of the Presbyterian Church in the Confederate States. In 1810 the Cumberland Presbyterian Church was established by the secession of revivalist groups in Kentucky; many of its congregations were reunited with the main body in 1906. The ones who remain independent now number about 88,000 members (1997), not including members of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church in America (originally set apart in 1869 as the Colored Cumberland Presbyterian Church).

In 1973 the Presbyterian Church in America, first known as the National Presbyterian Church, was organized as a constitutional assembly; it has about 279,000 members (1996). There are several other smaller branches of Presbyterianism in America. Presbyterians are the fourth largest Protestant denomination in the United States, after the Baptists, Methodists, and Lutherans. The Presbyterian Church in Canada was formed in 1875; some Presbyterians joined with the Methodist and Congregational churches in 1925 to form the United Church of Canada.

Bibliography

See W. L. Lingle and J. W. Kuykendall, Presbyterians (1960, rev. ed. 1978); A. M. Davies, Presbyterian Heritage (1965); J. Melton, Presbyterian Worship in America (1967); G. M. Marsden, The Evangelical Mind and the New School Presbyterian Experience (1970).

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presbytery

presbytery (prĕz´bĬtĕr´ē, prĕs´–), in architecture, the space in the eastern end of a church reserved for the higher clergy. It was also known in the early Christian Church as the apse, tribune, or exedra. In the English medieval cathedrals the presbytery usually occupies a large space between the high altar and the choir stalls. The term is used in Presbyterian churches for the court composed of the ministers and representative elders (one from each congregation) of a district.

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Presbyterian

Pres·by·te·ri·an / ˌprezbəˈtirēən; ˌpres-/ • adj. of, relating to, or denoting a Christian Church or denomination governed by elders according to the principles of Presbyterianism. • n. a member of a Presbyterian Church. ∎  an advocate of the Presbyterian system.

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presbytery

presbytery.
1. Part of a church in which the high-altar stands, at the east of the choir. It is often raised above floor-level, and is used exclusively by those who minister in the services of the altar.

2. Priest's house.

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Presbytery

Presbytery

a body of elders of the church, 1611; ministers and elders of the Presbyterian Church, collectively, 1628.

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Presbyterian

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quadragenarian, quinquagenarian, quodlibetarian, Rastafarian, riparian, rosarian, Rotarian, sabbatarian, Sagittarian, sanitarian, Sauveterrian, sectarian, seminarian, septuagenarian, sexagenarian, topiarian, totalitarian, Trinitarian, ubiquitarian, Unitarian, utilitarian, valetudinarian, vegetarian, veterinarian, vulgarian •Adrian, Hadrian •Assyrian, Illyrian, Syrian, Tyrian •morion • Austrian •Dorian, Ecuadorean, historian, Hyperborean, Nestorian, oratorian, praetorian (US pretorian), salutatorian, Salvadorean, Singaporean, stentorian, Taurean, valedictorian, Victorian •Ugrian • Zarathustrian •Cumbrian, Northumbrian, Umbrian •Algerian, Cancerian, Chaucerian, Cimmerian, criterion, Hesperian, Hitlerian, Hyperion, Iberian, Liberian, Nigerian, Presbyterian, Shakespearean, Siberian, Spenserian, Sumerian, valerian, Wagnerian, Zairean •Arthurian, Ben-Gurion, centurion, durian, holothurian, Khachaturian, Ligurian, Missourian, Silurian, tellurian •Circassian, Parnassian •halcyon • Capsian • Hessian •Albigensian, Waldensian •Dacian • Keatsian •Cilician, Galician, Lycian, Mysian, Odyssean •Leibnizian • Piscean • Ossian •Gaussian • Joycean • Andalusian •Mercian • Appalachian • Decian •Ordovician, Priscian •Lucian •himation, Montserratian •Atlantean, Dantean, Kantian •bastion, Erastian, Sebastian •Mozartian • Brechtian • Thyestean •Fortean • Faustian • protean •Djiboutian •fustian, Procrustean •Gilbertian, Goethean, nemertean •pantheon •Hogarthian, Parthian •Lethean, Promethean •Pythian • Corinthian • Scythian •Lothian, Midlothian •Latvian • Yugoslavian •avian, Batavian, Flavian, Moldavian, Moravian, Octavian, Scandinavian, Shavian •Bolivian, Maldivian, oblivion, Vivian •Chekhovian, Harrovian, Jovian, Pavlovian •alluvion, antediluvian, diluvian, Peruvian •Servian • Malawian • Zimbabwean •Abkhazian • Dickensian •Caucasian, Malaysian, Rabelaisian •Keynesian •Belizean, Cartesian, Indonesian, Milesian, Salesian, Silesian •Elysian, Frisian, Parisian, Tunisian •Holmesian •Carthusian, Malthusian, Venusian

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presbytery

presbyterybeery, bleary, cheery, dearie, dreary, Dun Laoghaire, eerie, eyrie (US aerie), Kashmiri, leery, peri, praemunire, query, smeary, teary, theory, weary •Deirdre • incendiary • intermediary •subsidiary •auxiliary, ciliary, domiciliary •apiary • topiary • farriery • furriery •justiciary •bestiary, vestiary •breviary • aviary • hosiery •diary, enquiry, expiry, fiery, friary, inquiry, miry, priory, spiry, wiry •podiatry, psychiatry •dowry, floury, flowery, loury, showery, towery •brewery • jewellery (US jewelry) •curie, de jure, fioriture, fury, houri, Jewry, jury, Manipuri, Missouri, moory, Newry, tandoori, Urey •statuary • actuary • sanctuary •obituary • sumptuary • voluptuary •January • electuary • ossuary •mortuary •Bradbury, Cadbury •blackberry, hackberry •cranberry • waxberry •Barbary, barberry •Shaftesbury • raspberry •bayberry, blaeberry •Avebury • Aylesbury • Sainsbury •bilberry, tilbury •bribery •corroboree, jobbery, robbery, slobbery, snobbery •dogberry • Roddenberry • Fosbury •strawberry • Salisbury •crowberry, snowberry •chokeberry •Rosebery, Shrewsbury •blueberry, dewberry •Dewsbury • Bloomsbury • gooseberry •blubbery, rubbery, shrubbery •Sudbury • mulberry • huckleberry •Bunbury • husbandry • loganberry •Canterbury • Glastonbury •Burberry, turbary •hatchery • archery •lechery, treachery •stitchery, witchery •debauchery • butchery • camaraderie •cindery, tindery •industry • dromedary • lapidary •spidery • bindery • doddery •quandary • powdery • boundary •bouldery • embroidery •prudery, rudery •do-goodery • shuddery • thundery •prebendary • legendary • secondary •amphorae • wafery •midwifery, periphery •infantry • housewifery • spoofery •puffery • sulphury (US sulfury) •Calgary •beggary, Gregory •vagary •piggery, priggery, whiggery •brigandry • bigotry • allegory •vinegary • category • subcategory •hoggery, toggery •pettifoggery • demagoguery •roguery • sugary •buggery, skulduggery, snuggery, thuggery •Hungary • humbuggery •ironmongery • lingerie • treasury •usury • menagerie • pageantry •Marjorie • kedgeree • gingery •imagery • orangery • savagery •forgery • soldiery • drudgery •perjury, surgery •microsurgery •hackery, quackery, Thackeray, Zachary •mountebankery • knick-knackery •gimcrackery • peccary • grotesquerie •bakery, fakery, jacquerie •chickaree, chicory, hickory, Terpsichore, trickery •whiskery • apothecary •crockery, mockery, rockery •falconry • jiggery-pokery •cookery, crookery, rookery •brusquerie •puckery, succory •cuckoldry •calorie, gallery, Malory, salary, Valerie •saddlery • balladry • gallantry •kilocalorie • diablerie • chandlery •harlotry • celery • pedlary •exemplary •helotry, zealotry •nailery, raillery •Tuileries •ancillary, artillery, capillary, codicillary, distillery, fibrillary, fritillary, Hilary, maxillary, pillory •mamillary • tutelary • corollary •bardolatry, hagiolatry, iconolatry, idolatry •cajolery, drollery •foolery, tomfoolery •constabulary, vocabulary •scapulary • capitulary • formulary •scullery • jugglery • cutlery •chancellery • epistolary • burglary •mammary • fragmentary •passementerie • flimflammery •armory, armoury, gendarmerie •almonry •emery, memory •creamery • shimmery • primary •rosemary • yeomanry •parfumerie, perfumery •flummery, Montgomery, mummery, summary, summery •gossamery • customary • infirmary •cannery, granary, tannery •canonry •antennary, bimillenary, millenary, venery •tenantry • chicanery •beanery, bicentenary, catenary, centenary, deanery, greenery, machinery, plenary, scenery, senary, septenary •disciplinary, interdisciplinary •hymnary • missionary •ordinary, subordinary •valetudinary • imaginary • millinery •culinary • seminary • preliminary •luminary • urinary • veterinary •mercenary • sanguinary •binary, finery, pinery, quinary, vinery, winery •Connery • Conakry • ornery • joinery •buffoonery, poltroonery, sublunary, superlunary •gunnery, nunnery •consuetudinary • visionary •exclusionary • legionary • pulmonary •coronary • reactionary • expansionary •concessionary, confessionary, discretionary •confectionery, insurrectionary, lectionary •deflationary, inflationary, probationary, stationary, stationery •expeditionary, petitionary, prohibitionary, traditionary, transitionary •dictionary • cautionary •ablutionary, counter-revolutionary, devolutionary, elocutionary, evolutionary, revolutionary, substitutionary •functionary •diversionary, reversionary •fernery, quaternary, ternary •peppery • extempore • weaponry •apery, drapery, japery, napery, papery, vapoury (US vapory) •frippery, slippery •coppery, foppery •popery • dupery • trumpery •February • heraldry • knight-errantry •arbitrary • registrary • library •contrary • horary • supernumerary •itinerary • honorary • funerary •contemporary, extemporary, temporary •literary • brasserie • chancery •accessory, intercessory, pessary, possessory, tesserae •dispensary, incensory, ostensory, sensory, suspensory •tracery •pâtisserie, rotisserie •emissary • dimissory •commissary, promissory •janissary • necessary • derisory •glossary • responsory • sorcery •grocery • greengrocery •delusory, illusory •compulsory • vavasory • adversary •anniversary, bursary, cursory, mercery, nursery •haberdashery •evidentiary, penitentiary, plenipotentiary, residentiary •beneficiary, fishery, judiciary •noshery • gaucherie • fiduciary •luxury • tertiary •battery, cattery, chattery, flattery, tattery •factory, manufactory, olfactory, phylactery, refractory, satisfactory •artery, martyry, Tartary •mastery, plastery •directory, ex-directory, interjectory, rectory, refectory, trajectory •peremptory •alimentary, complementary, complimentary, documentary, elementary, parliamentary, rudimentary, sedimentary, supplementary, testamentary •investigatory •adulatory, aleatory, approbatory, celebratory, clarificatory, classificatory, commendatory, congratulatory, consecratory, denigratory, elevatory, gyratory, incantatory, incubatory, intimidatory, modificatory, participatory, placatory, pulsatory, purificatory, reificatory, revelatory, rotatory •natatory • elucidatory • castigatory •mitigatory • justificatory •imprecatory • equivocatory •flagellatory • execratory • innovatory •eatery, excretory •glittery, jittery, skittery, twittery •benedictory, contradictory, maledictory, valedictory, victory •printery, splintery •consistory, history, mystery •presbytery •inhibitory, prohibitory •hereditary • auditory • budgetary •military, paramilitary •solitary • cemetery • limitary •vomitory • dormitory • fumitory •interplanetary, planetary, sanitary •primogenitary • dignitary •admonitory, monitory •unitary • monetary • territory •secretary • undersecretary •plebiscitary • repository • baptistery •transitory •depositary, depository, expository, suppository •niterie •Godwottery, lottery, pottery, tottery •bottomry • watery • psaltery •coterie, notary, protonotary, rotary, votary •upholstery •bijouterie, charcuterie, circumlocutory •persecutory • statutory • salutary •executory •contributory, retributory, tributary •interlocutory •buttery, fluttery •introductory • adultery • effrontery •perfunctory • blustery • mediatory •retaliatory • conciliatory • expiatory •denunciatory, renunciatory •appreciatory, depreciatory •initiatory, propitiatory •dietary, proprietary •extenuatory •mandatary, mandatory •predatory • sedentary • laudatory •prefatory • offertory • negatory •obligatory •derogatory, interrogatory, supererogatory •nugatory •expurgatory, objurgatory, purgatory •precatory •explicatory, indicatory, vindicatory •confiscatory, piscatory •dedicatory • judicatory •qualificatory • pacificatory •supplicatory •communicatory, excommunicatory •masticatory • prognosticatory •invocatory • obfuscatory •revocatory • charlatanry •depilatory, dilatory, oscillatory •assimilatory • consolatory •voluntary • emasculatory •ejaculatory •ambulatory, circumambulatory, perambulatory •regulatory •articulatory, gesticulatory •manipulatory • copulatory •expostulatory • circulatory •amatory, declamatory, defamatory, exclamatory, inflammatory, proclamatory •crematory • segmentary •lachrymatory •commentary, promontory •informatory, reformatory •momentary •affirmatory, confirmatory •explanatory • damnatory •condemnatory •cosignatory, signatory •combinatory •discriminatory, eliminatory, incriminatory, recriminatory •comminatory • exterminatory •hallucinatory • procrastinatory •monastery • repertory •emancipatory • anticipatory •exculpatory, inculpatory •declaratory, preparatory •respiratory • perspiratory •vibratory •migratory, transmigratory •exploratory, laboratory, oratory •inauguratory • adjuratory •corroboratory • reverberatory •refrigeratory • compensatory •desultory • dysentery •exhortatory, hortatory •salutatory • gustatory • lavatory •inventory •conservatory, observatory •improvisatory •accusatory, excusatory •lathery •feathery, heathery, leathery •dithery, slithery •carvery •reverie, severy •Avery, bravery, knavery, quavery, Savery, savory, savoury, slavery, wavery •thievery •livery, quivery, shivery •silvery •ivory, salivary •ovary •discovery, recovery •servery • equerry • reliquary •antiquary • cassowary • stipendiary •colliery • pecuniary • chinoiserie •misery • wizardry • citizenry •advisory, provisory, revisory, supervisory •causerie, rosary

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"presbytery." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Encyclopedia.com. 20 Oct. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"presbytery." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Encyclopedia.com. (October 20, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/presbytery

"presbytery." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Retrieved October 20, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/presbytery