François Fillon (fräNswä´ fēyôN´), 1954–, French political leader, b. Le Mans. A moderate conservaetive, he has served as an assembly deputy (1981–2002, 2007–) and a senator (2004–7) from Sarthe as well as in local elected posts. He was appointed minister for higher education and research (1993–97) by Premier ÉdouardBalladur and, after the election of President Jacques Chirac, served as minister (and then junior minister) for telecommunications and postal services (1995–97) until the Socialists won control of the French parliament. When the Union for a Popular Movement won the 2002 elections, Fillon returned to the cabinet as social affairs and labor minister (2002–4) and successfully negotiated with the labor unions to win important pension and labor reforms. Subsequently minister for education and research, he allied with Nicolas Sarkozy after being removed from the cabinet in reshuffle in 2005. Fillon directed Sarkozy's successful presidential campaign in 2007 and served (2007–12) as premier after Sarkozy took office.
"Fillon, François." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (October 20, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/fillon-francois
"Fillon, François." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved October 20, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/fillon-francois
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.