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Clarendon, Edward Hyde, 1st earl of

Edward Hyde Clarendon, 1st earl of (klâr´əndən), 1609–74, English statesman and historian. Elected (1640) to the Short and Long parliaments, he was at first associated with the opposition to Charles I and helped prepare the impeachment of the earl of Strafford. The increasing radicalism of the opposition, however, led him to offer his services to the king, whom he aided by drafting a reply to the Grand Remonstrance. After the outbreak of the civil war, Hyde was appointed (1643) chancellor of the exchequer, and he represented (1645) Charles in the unsuccessful Uxbridge negotiations to end the war. Hyde followed Prince Charles (later Charles II) into exile in 1646 and became one of his chief advisers. Pursuing Hyde's policy, Charles awaited the appearance of a strong, friendly faction in England and successfully negotiated his own restoration (1660) without foreign aid. After Charles's return to England, Hyde became (1660) lord chancellor and was created earl of Clarendon (1661). Clarendon hoped to achieve a lenient religious settlement that would conciliate the Puritans, but his wishes were overborne by the militantly Anglican Cavalier Parliament, which passed the unjustly named Clarendon Code. He was blamed by the public for the sale (1662) of Dunkirk to the French and for the second Dutch War (which he opposed), and he was unpopular with the licentious Restoration court. In 1667, Charles dismissed him from office, using him as a scapegoat for military failures and financial breakdown in the Dutch War. Impeachment proceedings were begun, and Clarendon fled England to live the remainder of his life in exile. As a statesman he was consistent and moderate, never wavering from his early views on constitutional monarchy but blind to new political forces created by the English civil war. Through the marriage (1660) of his daughter Anne to the duke of York (later James II), Clarendon was the grandfather of two queens, Mary II and Anne. His renowned History of the Rebellion (standard ed., 6 vol., 1888), written partly from memory and partly from documents, is an indispensable account of the civil war.

See his autobiography (1857); study by B. H. G. Wormald (1951, repr. 1964).

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"Clarendon, Edward Hyde, 1st earl of." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 22 Oct. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"Clarendon, Edward Hyde, 1st earl of." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved October 22, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/clarendon-edward-hyde-1st-earl

Clarendon, Edward Hyde, 1st earl of

Clarendon, Edward Hyde, 1st earl of (1609–74). Constitutionalism and the rule of law provided the guiding principles of Clarendon's life. In the first session of the Long Parliament, 1640–1, he led the attack on Charles I's prerogative courts, but in the second he perceived John Pym's radical policies as an equal threat to constitutional liberties and religious order. He co-authored Charles's declarations, joining him at York in May 1642. In 1643 as privy counsellor and chancellor of the Exchequer he persuaded Charles to convoke a parliament of royalist peers and MPs at Oxford to offset the absolutist advice of courtiers and soldiers. Similarly as adviser to the exiled Charles II he counselled him not to owe his restoration to Scottish, French, or Spanish intervention purchased by the abandonment of the Church of England.

In 1660 he became earl and lord chancellor. He did not think it proper to act as a prime minister, but his pregnant daughter Anne's marriage to James, duke of York, provoked charges that he dominated the royal family. Nor would he engage in systematic parliamentary management. He opposed all governmental innovations and the second Anglo-Dutch War, and lost control over junior ministers who combined against him when the war ended in failure. Charles cynically abandoned him, encouraging his impeachment. Clarendon fled to France, where he completed his monumental History of the Rebellion.

J. R. Jones

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"Clarendon, Edward Hyde, 1st earl of." The Oxford Companion to British History. . Encyclopedia.com. 22 Oct. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"Clarendon, Edward Hyde, 1st earl of." The Oxford Companion to British History. . Retrieved October 22, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/clarendon-edward-hyde-1st-earl

Clarendon, Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of

Clarendon, Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of (1609–74) English statesman and historian. A leading adviser to Charles I, he joined Charles II in exile, and negotiated the Restoration (1660). As chief minister to Charles II, he initiated (but disapproved of) four statutes collectively known as the Clarendon Code. The statutes restricted gatherings of Puritans and Nonconformists, and the movement of their ministers. In addition, municipal and church officers were required to be professed Anglicans, and all ministers were forced to use the Anglican Book of Common Prayer. Following disagreements with Charles II he was impeached and forced into exile in 1667, where he completed his History of the Rebellion and wrote an autobiography. See also Nonconformism

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Hyde, Edward

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