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Michael (czar of Russia)

Michael (Michael Romanov), 1596–1645, czar of Russia (1613–45), founder of the Romanov dynasty; grandnephew of Anastasia, first wife of Ivan IV. His election as czar, following successive appearances of false pretenders (see Dmitri), ended the so-called Time of Troubles, a period of social and political chaos in Russia that had begun in the late 16th cent. The real power in the government was Michael's father, the patriarch Philaret (d. 1633). During Michael's reign the peasantry was further reduced to serfdom; peace was temporarily obtained with Poland and Sweden; and some Western industrial and military techniques were introduced by foreign manufacturers and other experts. Michael was succeeded by his son Alexis.

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"Michael (czar of Russia)." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 18 Oct. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Michael (czar of Russia)." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (October 18, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/michael-czar-russia

"Michael (czar of Russia)." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved October 18, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/michael-czar-russia

czar

czar / zär; (t)sär/ (also tsar or tzar) • n. 1. variant spelling of tsar. 2. a person with great authority or power in a particular area: America's new drug czar. DERIVATIVES: czar·dom / -dəm/ n. czar·ism / -ˌizəm/ n. czar·ist / -ist/ n. & adj.

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"czar." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Encyclopedia.com. 18 Oct. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"czar." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Encyclopedia.com. (October 18, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/czar

"czar." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Retrieved October 18, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/czar

czar

czar, tzar, tsar emperor of Russia. XVI. Russ. tsar', ult. repr. L. Caesar through the medium of Gmc., in which the word meant ‘emperor’ (cf. MLG. ke(y)ser, OHG. keisar, ON. keisari, Goth. kaisar).

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"czar." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. . Encyclopedia.com. 18 Oct. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"czar." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. . Encyclopedia.com. (October 18, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/czar-0

"czar." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. . Retrieved October 18, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/czar-0