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Levellers

Levellers

BIBLIOGRAPHY

The term leveller has a long history. It seems to have emerged in its modern understanding during the early years of the English Revolution (16401660), when it was used to designate the perceived political aims of the Long Parliament (so called because the Parliament sat from 16401653, long after it would ordinarily have been disbanded). Later, it referred to a group of agitators both within and outside of the New Model Army (NMA), which had been formed in 1645 by Parliament in the course of the Civil War/Revolution against Charles I. Yet the Levellers are notoriously difficult to pin down, due in part to the heterogeneity of their composition, the shifting nature of their demands, and the fact that the group of radicals the term is understood to designate rejected the appellation.

The Levellers arose out of agitation for the release of John Lilburne (16151657). Lilburne had been a radical cause célebre under King Charles I (r. 16201649), who had him publicly whipped, pilloried, and imprisoned in 1638 for publishing Puritan tracts. Lilburne was released from prison in 1641 and became a soldier in the Parliamentary army. He was imprisoned again in 1644 for advocating liberty of conscience and the interests of common soldiers, both of which would be successful planks in later Leveller agitation.

In what is generally understood to be the founding document of the Leveller movement, Richard Overton and William Walwyn published A Remonstrance of Many Thousand Citizens in 1646. They demanded the release of Lilburne and listed a number of political and social demands that would become the backbone of Leveller ideology. Most significantly, the Remonstrance demanded annual parliaments, an expansion of the voting franchise, a form of progressive taxation, the abolition of the House of Lords, liberty of religious conscience, and a written constitution.

Though the Levellers propagandized with success among civilians, their greatest inroads were made in the New Model Army, which at this time had become the de facto government of England. They combined the political concerns of the Remonstrance with the concerns of the army, including inaction on back pay and the failure of Parliament to produce amnesty for acts committed during the Civil War. Plans to disband the NMA and raise a new army for the invasion of Ireland made these concerns more acute, as they threatened to eliminate the political clout of the army.

The NMA Levellers elected Agitators, or New Agents, from each regiment to press these concerns, and with Overton, Lilburne, and Walwyn they produced The Case of the Armie Truly Stated and the Agreement of the People (1647), vowing that the army would not disband or be deployed until their demands were met.

The tracts were debated at Putney in October and November of 1647, with much of the debates centered around the franchise. Oliver Cromwell, Henry Ireton, and a handful of officers represented the Grandees (the officers of the NMA) against the Agitators, with Ireton taking the lead. Ireton began the attack by cynically arguing that the Agitators had presented a levelling scheme (hence the term) that would result in communism and ultimately anarchy. He claimed that the Agreement, if adopted, would extend the franchise to persons (including foreigners) with no interest (as manifested in land) in England, and that it would therefore threaten the countrys stability. The Agitators responded that they had risked their lives in war, and thus had more interest in England than those who had merely risked land. Though arguments for universal manhood suffrage were made, this does not seem to have been the general aim of the Agitators, and such arguments appear for the most part specifically related to suffrage among soldiers.

The general mood of the Agitators tended toward suffrage of persons considered independent (i.e., holders of small property) and did not include such persons as servants and beggars. This position met with surprising success among NMA officers, including Colonel Thomas Rainborough, who became an eloquent spokesman for their cause. On the whole, the Agitators aims may be summed up in their oft-repeated self-designationthey were for liberty and propriety, as opposed to community and levelling.

Though the Agreement enjoyed the support of a wide swath of officers and rank-and-file soldiers, it was scuttled by a familiar Cromwellian combination of force, fraud, and circumstance. The Levellers ceased to be a political force after 1648. The terms leveller and levelling, however, almost immediately entered the political lexicon, mostly on Iretons terms. As early as 1649, the term leveller was in use by Gerrard Winstanley and William Everard, the founders of the Digger colony at St. Georges Hill in Surrey, which sought to lay the foundations of a communist society. The group alternately referred to themselves as True Levellers. A popular Ranter named Abiezer Coppe decried the murder of the Levellers (so called) and (in a typically apocalyptic flourish) promised that, as a result, the risen Lord was now going to levell in good earnest.

Though Leveller arguments could, in part, be seen at the root of John Lockes Two Treatises and other Whig thinking, the terms leveller and levelling came to represent a sort of radical redistribution of political and economic power, usually synonymous with anarchy. As such it was something of a hot potato for those so accused, with the notable exception of the eighteenth-century revolutionary Irish underground organization called the White Boys, who also referred to themselves as Levellers.

The term enjoyed a renaissance of sorts in England around the time of the French Revolution. Elites bankrolled societies for the Preservation of Liberty and Property against Republicans and Levellers, with republican replacing community. Edmund Burke categorized republican agitation as mad levelling schemes that sought to pervert the natural [i.e., hierarchical, hereditary] order. Levelling thus retained a strong association with anarchy, chaos, and rule by the rabble. The radical pamphleteer Thomas Paine, whose writings owe a deep (if unwitting) debt to the seventeenth-century Levellers, sought to distance himself from such accusations and turn them on his critics, arguing that a hereditary aristocracy was itself a levelling scheme that ignored merit and elevated the bad, corrupt, and incompetent to positions of power by virtue of birth.

If Paine sought to distance democratic reform from accusations of levelling, plebeian revolutionaries who followed in his wake were less skittish regarding the term, which was used interchangeably in such circles with radical reformer. The radical writer Thomas Spence (17501814) derived some of his ideas regarding land redistribution from the Diggers, or True Levellers, and he was publishing excerpts from seventeenth-century Leveller writings in his Pigs Meat, or Lessons for the Swinish Multitude in the late eighteenth century. In Spences example, British ultra-radicals reveled in accusations of levelling (and in being part of the swinish multitude). The publisher Samuel Waddingtons Medusa, an ultra-radical publication, spoke approvingly of levelling, as did the poet Richard Citizen Lee, who, perhaps confirming reactionary fears, combined the term with an affection for the guillotine. The wildly popular ultra-radical preacher (and son of a slave) Robert Wedderburn was enormously fond of metaphors of levelling, and he was tried for seditious blasphemy in 1819 partly for linking Jesus Christ with such concerns.

Levelling tended to fall from use in the nineteenth century, when it was replaced by radical, socialist, communist, and other terms that reflected the political landscape of the time. The seventeenth-century Levellers became a subject of great interest both for socialist and Whig historians in the early twentieth century after the discovery of Clarkes minutes of the Putney Debates. These permitted a serious appraisal of just what the Levellers had stood for, and the term has lost its pejorative sense as many of their demands have been achieved and even superseded.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Gentiles, Ian. 1992. The New Model Army in England, Ireland and Scotland 16451653. London: Blackwell.

Herzog, Don. 2000. Poisoning the Minds of the Lower Orders. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Hill, Christopher. 1961. The Century of Revolution 16031714. Edinburgh: T. Nelson.

Hill, Christopher. 1972. The World Turned Upside Down: Radical Ideas in the English Revolution. London: Temple Smith.

MacPherson, C. B. 1962. The Political Theory of Possessive Individualism: From Hobbes to Locke. Oxford: Clarendon.

Morton, A. L. 1970. The World of the Ranters: Religious Radicalism in the English Revolution. London: Lawrence and Wishart.

Morton, A. L., ed. 1975. Freedom in Arms: A Collection of Leveller Writings. New York: International Publishers.

Underdown, David. 1971. Prides Purge: Politics in the Puritan Revolution. Oxford: Clarendon.

Wolfe, Don, ed. 1944. Leveller Manifestoes of the Puritan Revolution. New York: Thomas Nelson.

Christopher J. Lamping

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Levellers

Levellers. A popular democratic movement which emerged fully in 1647, though its leading pamphleteers, John Lilburne, Richard Overton, and William Walwyn, had campaigned earlier for specific rights and reforms. The Levellers' basic principle was that all men and women are born equal, and are rightfully subject to no authority except by agreement and consent. Their so-called ‘Large Petition’ of March 1647 confronted Parliament with a wide range of grievances, but was burned by the common hangman in May. By then the New Model Army was defying Parliament's threat to disband it, so the Levellers set about indoctrinating its newly elected agitators. They made some converts, notably Edward Sexby, but most soldiers remained loyal to their commanders. They therefore persuaded six cavalry regiments to adopt new agents or agitators, and through them brought a revolutionary ‘Agreement of the People’ before the army's general council in the famous Putney debates. Implying the abolition of monarchy and the House of Lords, the agreement proposed that biennial, popularly elected parliaments should wield supreme authority, subject only to certain ‘native rights’ such as liberty of conscience and equality before the law, which the sovereign people reserved to themselves. Unwisely, they accompanied their agitation among the soldiery with incitements to mutiny. They suspended their opposition during the second civil war, but when the Commonwealth was established their leaders (Walwyn excepted) denounced it virulently in Englands New Chains Discovered and other tracts. They also raised a new and more serious mutiny in the army. After its suppression they lost coherence as an organized movement, and some of them later intrigued with the royalists against Cromwell's Protectorate.

The Levellers' claim to be true democrats has been challenged, because they later qualified their demands for manhood suffrage by excluding those who subsisted by alms or worked as servants in a master's household; but this modification was tactical rather than principled. It was their principle, however, to preserve property, and not ‘level men's estates’; here they differed from the self-styled True Levellers, or Diggers.

Austin Woolrych

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Levelers

Levelers or Levellers, English Puritan sect active at the time of the English civil war. The name was apparently applied to them in 1647, in derision of their beliefs in equality. The leader of the movement and its most indefatigable propagandist was John Lilburne. The Levelers demanded fundamental constitutional reform—a written constitution, a single supreme representative body elected by universal manhood suffrage, proportional representation, and the abolition of monarchy and noble privilege. Their ideals, far in advance of their time, were those of complete religious and political equality. They were adept at the use of mass petitions and extensive pamphleteering to arouse the public. When the Long Parliament did not respond to their ideas, they tried to build support in the ranks of the army, with some success. They identified themselves with the army's demands for arrears of pay, and Lilburne's pamphlet The Case of the Army Truly Stated was presented (1647) to Thomas Fairfax (later 3d Baron Fairfax of Cameron). An expanded version, Foundations of Freedom; or, An Agreement of the People, describing the whole Leveler program, was discussed at the Putney debates (Oct., 1647) between the elected army council and their commanding officers. The Leveler proposals were totally rejected by Gen. Henry Ireton as subversive of property interests. A later pamphlet, England's New Chains, published after the execution of Charles I, and several Leveler mutinies (1649) resulted in severe suppression of the Levelers by Oliver Cromwell, who had constantly opposed them.

See T. C. Pease, The Leveller Movement (1916, repr. 1965); W. Haller and G. Davies, ed., The Leveller Tracts, 1647–1653 (1944, repr. 1964); J. Frank, The Levellers (1955, repr. 1969); N. H. Brailsford, The Levellers and the English Revolution (1961); C. H. Shaw, The Levellers (1968).

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Levellers

Levellers (1645–49) Members of a radical movement in England in the Commonwealth period (c.1645–57). They wanted sweeping parliamentary reform, religious toleration, and a fairer, more egalitarian society. Their leaders, including John Lilburne, presented a constitution to Oliver Cromwell in 1647. When their demands were not met, several mutinies broke out in the army, resulting in their suppression. See also Diggers

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