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Benedictines

Benedictines. The monastic order of St Benedict of Nursia (c.480–c.550) had its origins at Monte Cassino, south of Rome, where c.540 Benedict drew up a rule, drawing heavily on antecedent Rules, such as those of St Augustine of Hippo and Caesarius of Arles. This concise codification, detailing the practice of communal spiritual and contemplative life, remained one of several monastic rules in western Europe but gradually, partly through the unifying influence of the Carolingian empire, became dominant, until challenged by the rule of St Augustine in the 11th cent. Apart from its structured articulation of the monastic life, one of its chief strengths was its adaptability, and many interpretations were introduced, often in an effort to enforce greater asceticism and discipline, of which amongst the most influential were those of Benedict of Aniane (c.750–821) in the Carolingian empire, Cluny, founded in Burgundy in 909, and Cîteaux, also in Burgundy (1098).

The first Benedictine abbeys in England were probably those founded by Wilfrid of York at Ripon and Hexham at the end of the 7th cent. Thereafter the order spread rapidly in England, and soon supplanted communities of Celtic and other observance, though these survived for many years in Celtic Britain. Important abbeys were established in the north, e.g. at Jarrow-Monkwearmouth; in the south-east, especially at Canterbury, where the existing monasteries of Christ Church and St Augustine's were reformed on Benedictine lines; in the south-west, e.g. at Glastonbury and Malmesbury. With the rise of the kingdom of Mercia further notable foundations were made in the midlands, especially in the Severn valley, while others emerged in the fenlands, such as Peterborough. The Viking raids of the 9th cent. severely affected most Benedictine houses, some of which were totally destroyed; others were refounded, and some new ones founded in the mid-10th cent. under the influence of Æthelwold, bishop of Winchester, Archbishop Dunstan of Canterbury, and Wulfstan, bishop of Worcester, all themselves monks. Though the extent of this monastic reform has been questioned there remains little doubt that there was a considerable revitalization of the monastic movement. Following the Norman Conquest some abbeys lost land, but most soon recovered under new, Norman abbots, and attracted widespread patronage, as did St Albans and Westminster, and new abbeys were founded, such as Chester, St Mary's York, Durham, and Selby. There was also an increase in the number of Benedictine nunneries, though the most prestigious were Anglo-Saxon foundations like Shaftesbury or Wilton. Though later challenged by the emerging universities the following two centuries perhaps marked the high point of Benedictine cultural, artistic, and scholarly influence, at centres such as Winchester, Bury St Edmunds, and St Albans.

The Benedictines were also challenged by the rising appeal to lay society of new orders, like the Cistercians and the Augustinians, and the friars who presented a new spirituality, and attempts were made at internal reform and centralization of an order that now numbered several hundred houses. By the 16th cent. the number of Benedictine monks had declined significantly and, though many remained wealthy institutions till their dissolution, their dynamic had largely been lost.

Brian Golding

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Benedictines

Benedictines, religious order of the Roman Catholic Church, following the rule of St. Benedict [Lat. abbr.,=O.S.B.]. The first Benedictine monastery was at Monte Cassino, Italy, which came to be regarded as the symbolic center of Western monasticism. St. Benedict's rule was in many ways novel in monastic life in replacing severity with moderation. The monastery, or abbey, was conceived as a devout Christian family, with an abbot or abbess as head. The monks or nuns swore to live in the house until death. The whole of Benedictine life was experienced in common, the waking hours being devoted principally to worship and work, especially manual labor. In the 8th cent. the English Benedictines St. Willibrord and St. Boniface evangelized Frisia and Germany; in this expansion of Christendom the abbey served as an outpost, a unit of both Latin culture (including Western agricultural methods) and Christian religion. The Benedictines were also active in continental Western Europe—their preservation of books was a critical service. At a series of councils held under Louis I at Aachen (AD 816–AD 819), Benedict of Aniane attempted to standardize monastic practices in the Carolingian Empire according to the Rule of St. Benedict. In the 10th cent. a reform began at the Benedictine abbey of Cluny, France, that resulted in the development of the Cluniac order; at Cluny the liturgy was significantly expanded. Another reform, begun in 1098, resulted in the foundation of the order of the Cistercians. Throughout the centuries Benedictine houses have occupied a central position in Western monasticism. Today they are organized as a loose federation of congregations, each congregation being a collection of geographically related abbeys or monasteries that are mainly autonomous. Benedictine work in liturgy has been outstanding. The abbeys at Solesmes and Beuron in particular have established a spiritual life centered around sung liturgy. They are responsible for the restoration of Gregorian melodies (plain chant) and their universal use today in the Roman Catholic Church. Permanent Benedictine establishments in the United States began in the 1840s. Benedictine nuns, originally founded by St. Benedict and his sister Scholastica as an enclosed order, now often do missionary and educational work in communities.

See E. C. Butler, Benedictine Monachism (2d ed. 1924, repr. 1962); C. H. Lawrence, Medieval Monasticism (1984).

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Benedictines

Benedictines Monks and nuns of the monastic Order of Saint Benedict, who follow the Rule laid down by Saint Benedict (of Nursia) in the 6th century. The order played a leading role in bringing Christianity and civilization to Western Europe in the 7th century and in preserving the traditions of Christianity throughout the medieval period. During the Reformation most Benedictine monasteries and nunneries in Europe were suppressed. The order revived in France and Germany during the 17th century. Benedictine monks and nuns returned to England in the late 19th century and the Benedictine Order spread to North and South America. See also monasticism

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Benedictine

Benedictine. Monastic Order based on the rules of St Benedict (480–543), who established the great Abbey at Monte Cassino from which the arts of agriculture, architecture, and writing were disseminated. In C9 the Rule was regularized, and the Order confined its activities to Western Europe. An exemplary plan for the Benedictine Monastery of St Gall in Switzerland survives, and demonstrates the sophistication of the architecture as early as c.820: the plan of the church itself is similar to that used for several later churches.

Bibliography

Eschapasse (1963);
J. Evans (1972)

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"Benedictine." A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture. . Encyclopedia.com. 21 Oct. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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Benedictine

Benedictine a monk or nun of a Christian religious order following the rule of St Benedict, established c.540. The Rule of St Benedict was gradually adopted by most Western monastic houses, sometimes with their own modifications. Benedictines were also known as Black Monks from the colour of their habits.

The liqueur benedictine, based on brandy, is named from its being originally made by Benedictine monks in France.


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Benedictine

Benedictine A French liqueur invented in about 1510 by the monks of the Benedictine Abbey of Fécamp in France. The Abbey was closed, and the recipe lost after the French Revolution, then rediscovered about 1863. It is based on double‐distilled brandy, flavoured with some 75 herbs and spices; it contains 40% (by volume) alcohol and 30% sugar; 300 kcal (1.3 MJ)/100 mL. See also B and B.

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"Benedictine." A Dictionary of Food and Nutrition. . Encyclopedia.com. 21 Oct. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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benedictine

benedictine (bĕnədĬk´tēn), sweet liqueur originated in 1510 by Benedictine monks at Fécamp, France, and now manufactured by a secular concern on the grounds of the old abbey. Every bottle bears the initials of the Latin dedication Deo Optimo Maximo [to God most good, most great]. The exact formula of benedictine remains a secret.

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"benedictine." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 21 Oct. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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Benedictine

Ben·e·dic·tine / ˌbeniˈdikˌtēn; -tin/ • n. 1. a monk or nun of an order following the rule of St. Benedict. 2. trademark a liqueur based on brandy, originally made by Benedictine monks in France. • adj. of St. Benedict or the Benedictines.

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"Benedictine." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Encyclopedia.com. 21 Oct. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"Benedictine." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Retrieved October 21, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/benedictine-1

Benedictine

Benedictine (monk or nun) of the order of St. Benedict, founded by him c.529. XVII. — F. bénédictin or modL. benedictīnus, f. Benedictus; see -INE1.
So benedictine liqueur made by these monks. XIX. — F. bénédictine (sc. liqueur), fem. of above adj.

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"Benedictine." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. . Encyclopedia.com. 21 Oct. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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Benedictines

Benedictines: see BENEDICT, ST;

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"Benedictines." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. . Encyclopedia.com. 21 Oct. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"Benedictines." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. . Retrieved October 21, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/benedictines

Benedictine

Benedictine •diamantine • dentine • Benedictine •Christine, pristine, Sistine •Springsteen • tontine • protein •Justine • libertine • mangosteen •brigantine • Augustine • nicotine •galantine • guillotine • carotene •quarantine • astatine • travertine •brilliantine • ethene • polythene •hypersthene • olivine • Slovene •go-between • fanzine •benzene, benzine •bombazine • organzine

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