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Florence

FLORENCE

FLORENCE. Originally a center of Roman provincial government and commerce, Florence in the Middle Ages became an important bishopric, a county nominally subject to the Holy Roman Emperor, and, by 1138, a commune. Beginning in 1125 with the capture of its nearby rival, Fiesole, Florence embarked on a policy of Tuscan expansion that would culminate in the mid-sixteenth century with its conquest of Siena and its position as the capital of Tuscany. A hub of banking, commerce, and textiles, it was, along with Venice, Milan, Rome, and Naples, one of the five powers of Renaissance Italy as well as the axis of Renaissance Italian culture. Its history throughout the early modern era was bound to the Medici family, who dominated it either unofficially or, after 1530, as lords. With the death of Gian Gastone de' Medici in 1737, Florence and its territory became a fief of the House of Lorraine.

THE FLORENTINE CONSTITUTION

With the exile of most of the Medici in 1494, the republic, dominated by the friar Girolamo Savonarola (14521498), broadened the government by establishing a Great Council of some three thousand members. But with the return of the Medici in 1530, the oligarchy redrew the constitution. Alessandro de' Medici (15101537) became capo (head) and, shortly thereafter, "duke of the republic of Florence." The four-man Magistrato Supremo replaced the Signoria ; the Consiglio de' 200 (Council of Two Hundred) and Senato de' 48 (Senate of Forty-Eight), whose members served for life, replaced the Consiglio Maggiore (Great Council). As of 1537, the old criminal courts of the Executors of the Ordinances of Justice and Podestà (chief magistrate) were consolidated in the Otto di Guardia e di Balìa (Eight on Public Safety), though, despite ducal attempts at centralization, some two dozen other bodies exercised criminal justice functions. As of 1569, the ruler held the title grand duke of Tuscany from the pope.

POLITICS

Although the arrival in Italy of Charles VIII of France in 1494 seemed the fulfillment of Savonarola's apocalyptic preaching, the friar's pro-French policy, antithetical to the position of Pope Alexander VI, and his defiance of a papal excommunication led to his execution in 1498. In 1512, the Medici, headed by Cardinal Giovanni (the future Pope Leo X [reigned 15131521] and the son of Lorenzo the Magnificent), returned as lords, but fled in 1527 following the sack of Rome. In 1530, pro-Medici troops forced the fall of the last Florentine republic. Although the Medici would, from now on, rule as lords, Florence's patriciate proved resilient: 90 percent of appointees to the Senate during the sixteenth century came from families who had served in the Signoria the century before.

Florence became the capital of an important medium-sized state in the early modern period. As of 1537, it was ruled by one of the most talented of the Medici, Duke Cosimo I (15191574), who succeeded in establishing considerable Florentine independence. By the early eighteenth century, Florence was paying huge subsidies to Austria, one of the costs of attempted neutrality. In the last weeks of the reign of the childless Gian Gastone de' Medici (16711737), several thousand Austrian troops occupied the city, and upon his death the grand duchy passed to the House of Lorraine.

The Medici dukes allied Tuscany with the Catholic states of Europe through both policy and marriages. Cosimo I, for instance, married into the House of Toledo; his progeny made marriage alliances with the Habsburgs, the royal house of France, and the House of Lorraine. Catherine de Médicis (15181589), wife of Henry II of France, was a daughter of Lorenzo of Urbino, and Marie de Médicis (15731642), wife of Henry IV of France, was a daughter of Francesco. Catherine's daughter Elizabeth married Philip II of Spain, and a son married Mary Stuart. Cosimo III (16421723) paired his daughter with Johann Wilhelm, elector of the Palatinate.

SCIENCE, ART, AND CULTURE

Florence's enduring fame rests on its place in Renaissance and early modern culture. The humanists Coluccio Salutati, Marsilio Ficino, Angelo Poliziano, and Giovanni Pico della Mirandola all worked in Florence. In the early sixteenth century, the Rucellai family hosted gatherings of Florentine patricians in the family's palace gardens, the Orti Oricellari, where Niccolò Machiavelli explained to the literati gathered there the principles of his Discourses; indeed, scholars trace the political realism of Machiavelli and Francesco Guicciardini (14831540) to modes of thought developed by participants in the Rucellai garden conversations.

Florence remained a center of learning through the early modern era. Galileo Galilei (15641642) served as a Medici court mathematician and as tutor to the future Cosimo II (15901621), and left some of his scientific instruments to Ferdinando II (16101670), a man of real scientific bent. Another of Galileo's legacies was a "core of Tuscan Galileans" (Cochrane, p. 232), many of whom gathered at the learned academy popularly known as the Cimento, patronized and organized by prince Leopoldo, son of Cosimo II.

Lorenzo Magalotti (16371712), a diplomat, scientist, and writer whose interests ranged from geometry to air pressure to collecting bawdy poetry in several languages, belonged to the Accademia della Crusca and served as secretary of the Accademia del Cimento. When the latter disbanded in the second half of the seventeenth century, its members spread its ideas throughout Europe. Cosimo III (16421723) patronized medical research, including the work of his personal physician, Francesco Redi (16261698), whose critique of the received wisdom of the Greek physician Galen led to a more modern approach to health and pharmacology. Several Medici grand dukes also made it their policy to extend health care to even the more remote parts of their domain.

The Medici and other patrons sought out the best artists and humanists of the day. Florence was at the forefront of mannerism, with the architecture of Michelangelo (the stairs of the Laurentian Library, 15241526) and the paintings of Jacopo Pontormo (The Visitation in the Church of the Annunziata, 15141516, and The Deposition in the Church of Santa Felicità, 15261528), Parmigianino (The Madonna with the Long Neck, c. 1535), and the works of Agnolo Bronzino and Giorgio Vasari (best known for his Lives of the Painters, Sculptors and Architects and the Uffizi, or public office building, 15591565). The city was an energetic participant in the Italian baroque movement; Artemesia Gentileschi enjoyed the patronage of Cosimo II, completed Judith and Her Maidservant around 1614, and was admitted to Florence's Accademia del Disegno.

FINANCE AND ECONOMY

Florence remained economically stable, even prosperous, until the recession, accelerated by the Thirty Years' War (16181648), of the 1620s. Cosimo I and his successors, especially Ferdinando I, lavished time and money on the acquisition and improvement of Livorno, which became Tuscany's main port and a sanctuary for merchants of all nations and creeds. In the reign of Francesco, a wave of palace construction reflected increased patrician investment in buildings.

Florence's economic power rested upon two industries, international banking and textiles, though the great Medici bank collapsed by 1494. Good raw wool, imported from England, Spain, and elsewhere, was spun by thousands of country women and then woven into cloth on looms. Until the mid-fourteenth century, women dominated the weaving trade, but were then replaced by German immigrant males. By the late sixteenth century, women once again flocked to the trade, and they constituted nearly two-thirds of wool weavers by 1604.

Smaller but still important was Florence's silk industry, producing high-quality, luxury goods. Women played important roles in cultivating mulberry trees, harvesting the leaves on which the silkworms fed, caring for the silk cocoons, and spinning the raw silk into thread. As with the wool industry, women tended to carry out production tasks associated with plain cloth, not with fine, highly decorative textiles.

Other important industries included international trade, printing, and glassmaking. Florentine merchants could be found in every corner of Europe. Cosimo I subsidized the press of Laurens Lenaerts (known in Florence as Lorenzo Torrentino), who published works in the vernacular, Latin, and Greek, among them the first edition of Vasari's Lives (1550). Torrentino's successors served as printers to the grand dukes until the late eighteenth century. A painting by Giovanni Maria Butteri from the early 1570s of a glass factory, built for Francesco I, hints at the importance of that industry.

POPULATION

In 1427 Florence held about 40,000 permanent inhabitants, not including clergy, about one-third of its estimated population prior to the Black Death of 1348. The 1552 census counted about 60,000 residents, including clergy. The number rose to about 75,000 by 1600. The population was unusually literate; between a quarter and a third of Florentines could read and write during the Renaissance.

Florence had animportantJewishcommunityby the early thirteenth century. By the fifteenth century, Jews were relegated to a very fewprofessions, notably pawnbroking. The Savonarolan republic's attemptin 1495 to expel them failed. Cosimo I granted substantial privileges to Jewish bankers in Tuscany and forbade anti-Semitic acts. In the 1550s, he opened Tuscany to settlement by Jews, an invitation accepted by many Iberian Jews, who created the first important Sephardic community in Italy. In 1571, Jews in Florence were moved to a ghetto, where they enjoyed considerable internal autonomy and where, by the century's end, they had built two synagogues. The Jewish physician Elia Montalto di Luna worked at the Medici court in the seventeenth century and produced learned scientific treatises. Although the entry of Napoleonic armies into Florence in 1799 resulted in the emancipation of the Jews, the return of the Habsburgs in 1815 forced them back into the ghetto, from which they were definitively liberated only with Italian unification.

See also Banking and Credit ; Florence, Art in ; Galileo Galilei ; Gentileschi, Artemisia ; Humanists and Humanism ; Italy ; Jews and Judaism ; Macchiavelli, Niccolò ; Medici Family ; Plague ; Renaissance ; Vasari, Giorgio .

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Primary Sources

Machiavelli, Niccolò. Florentine Histories. Translated by Laura F. Banfield and Harvey C. Mansfield, Jr. Princeton, 1988. Translation of Istorie fiorentine. Florence's history as compiled, on commission from the Medici, by this astute political observer.

Secondary Sources

Acton, Harold. The Last Medici. Rev. ed. New York, 1980. A lively portrait of the late-seventeenth- and eighteenth-century Medici grand dukes.

Brackett, John K. Criminal Justice and Crime in Late Renaissance Florence, 15371609. Cambridge, U.K., and New York, 1992. Analyzes the Florentine criminal justice system in the late Renaissance.

Cochrane, Eric. Florence in the Forgotten Centuries, 15271800: A History of Florence and the Florentines in the Age of the Grand Dukes. Chicago and London, 1983. Colorful and well written; an impressionistic work for the general public with several chapters on the late Renaissance.

Hale, J. R. Florence and the Medici: The Pattern of Control. London, 1977. A history of the Medici and their relationship with Florence from the early Renaissance through the reign of Gian Gastone.

Litchfield, R. Burr. Emergence of a Bureaucracy: The Florentine Patricians, 15301790. Princeton, 1986. Catalogues the resilience of the Florentine elite over the longue durée.

Menning, Carol Bresnahan. Charity and State in Late Renaissance Italy: The Monte di Pietà of Florence. Ithaca, N.Y., 1993. A scholarly work on Florence's charitable pawn shop through the late sixteenth century.

Carol M. Bresnahan

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Florence (city, Italy)

Florence (flôr´əns, flŏr´–), Ital. Firenze, city (1991 pop. 403,294), capital of Tuscany and of Firenze prov., central Italy, on the Arno River, at the foot of the Apennines. Florence, the jewel of the Italian Renaissance, is one of the world's great historic cities. It is a commercial, industrial, and tourist center and a rail junction. Tourism is the main industry, which is supported by the manufacture of glassware, precious metalware, leatherwork, ceramics, clothing, shoes, and art reproductions. The Univ. of Florence is an international cultural center, and the National Library is in the city. Only one bridge, the Ponte Vecchio (14th cent.), survived World War II, and now several modern bridges span the Arno.

Points of Interest

It is impossible to mention here all of the city's monuments, most of which date from the 13th to 15th cent. The Gothic cathedral of Santa Maria del Fiore (begun 1296) has a dome (1420–34) by Brunelleschi; nearby are the slim campanile (269 ft/82 m high) designed by Giotto, and Andrea Pisano and Lorenzo Ghiberti created their famous bronze doors for the baptistery. The large Franciscan Church of Santa Croce is the Florentine pantheon and has frescoes by Giotto, a crucifix by Donatello, and fine works by the Della Robbia family, Rossellino, and others. The Church of Santa Maria Novella (1278–1350) has frescoes by Masaccio, Orcagna, and Ghirlandaio; fine cloisters; and a facade (1470) by Alberti. Some of the best works of Fra Angelico are in the museum of the Monastery of St. Mark. Important frescoes by Masolino, Masaccio, and Filippino Lippi adorn the Church of Santa Maria del Carmine. The Church of San Lorenzo contains Michelangelo's tombs of the Medici; many works by Donatello; and the Laurentian Library, which holds approximately 10,000 manuscripts. The oratory of Orsanmichele (originally a wheat granary; rebuilt 1337–1404) has a tabernacle (14th cent.) by Orcagna. On a hill overlooking the city is the Romanesque basilica of San Miniato al Monte.

On the Piazza della Signoria are the Palazzo Vecchio, which contains frescoes by Vasari and sculptures by Michelangelo; the Loggia dei Lanzi (later 14th cent.), which has the Perseus (1533) of Cellini; and Ammanati's Fountain of Neptune (1576). The Uffizi Museum, housed in a Renaissance palace designed by Vasari, contains great collections of paintings, especially by Botticelli, Masaccio, and Piero della Francesca. The Pitti Palace (15th–17th cent.) also houses fine paintings, particularly by Raphael, Andrea del Sarto, and Titian. Behind the Pitti Palace are the terraced Boboli Gardens (1550), a good example of Italian landscaping architecture. Other important art museums include the Academy, with works by Michelangelo; the gallery in the Bargello palace, with works by Donatello; and the archaeological museum, with Etruscan, Egyptian, and Greco-Roman art. Among the other numerous medieval and Renaissance palaces, the Medici-Riccardi, Strozzi, and Rucellai deserve special mention.

History

Florence was the site of an Etruscan settlement and later became a Roman town on the Cassian Way (the modern Piazza della Republica is on the site of the Roman Forum). In the 5th and 6th cent. AD the city was controlled, in turn, by the Goths, Byzantines, and Lombards. It became an autonomous commune in the 12th cent.

In the 13th cent. the Guelphs (who were propapal) and the Ghibellines (who were proimperial) fought for control of the city. By the end of the 13th cent. the Guelphs held control, but they then split into warring factions, the Blacks and the Whites, best remembered because Dante, a Florentine, was banished (1302) as a White Guelph. Warfare raged, too, with other cities, notably Pisa, as the merchants and bankers of Florence made their own fortunes and that of the city; the sale of Florentine silks, tapestries, and jewelry brought great wealth. Florence grew as a result of war, absorbing Arezzo, Pistoia, Volterra, and Pisa. Growth was temporarily halted in 1348, when the Black Death killed approximately 60% of the city's population.

Florence became a city-state and in the 15th cent. came under the control of Cosimo de' Medici, a wealthy merchant and patron of the arts. Although republican forms were kept until the 16th cent., the Medici family ruled, and Lorenzo de' Medici, who held power from 1469 to 1492, was able to put down the Pazzi conspiracy (1478), instigated by Pope Sixtus IV.

Under Lorenzo and his successors, Florence was for two centuries the golden city, with an incredible flowering of intellectual and artistic life. The list of artists working in the city was headed by Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, and Donatello. There were also numerous poets and scholars active in Florence, and the Accademia della Crusca was established (1582). A school of music flourished in the city during the Renaissance, and the earliest operas, Peri's Dafne (1594) and Euridice (1600), were performed there.

Political life continued to be turbulent. The Medici were expelled by a revolution in 1494, the fiery religious reformer Savonarola briefly held power (1494–98), and Machiavelli was a diplomatic representative of the republic. The revolt against the Medici was over by 1512, but another revolution (1527–30) established a new republic, which, however, was forced to surrender to Emperor Charles V after a heroic defense.

Under the restored Medici, Florence went on expanding and controlled most of Tuscany. In 1569, Cosimo I de' Medici was made grand duke, and Florence became the capital of the grand duchy of Tuscany. The grand duchy, ruled by the house of Hapsburg-Lorraine after the extinction (1737) of the Medici line, was annexed to the kingdom of Sardinia in 1860. Florence was the capital of the newly founded kingdom of Italy from 1865 to 1871. Relatively few of the art treasures of Florence were harmed in World War II; the flooding of the Arno in Nov., 1966, however, caused extensive damage, which art experts sought, with considerable success, to repair.

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Florence

Florence

Florence emerged in the medieval era as an important banking center and the home of a bustling textile industry. Florentine banks established branches in London, Geneva, and other European cities, and the city's gold coin, the florin, circulated widely throughout the continent. By the fifteenth century, the city had a population of more than fifty thousand and was an independent city-state, governing itself through councils of the wealthiest citizens.

This oligarchy based its power on control of the city's guilds, which were associations of civic leaders, merchants, industrial workers, artists, and artisans. Members of the guilds had the vote, making the rulers somewhat answerable to the public will; the oligarchy in turn ruled the city with a view to protecting trade, and increasing the city's prosperity and influence. Florence had a keen spirit of competition among its leaders and industries that extended to the commissions of public artwork. In 1401, a contest decided the best design for the doors of the Baptistery among Lorenzo Ghiberti, Filippo Brunelleschi, and Donatello. Spurred on by the desire to provide the most striking and innovative design, these artists made important innovations in the presentation of traditional biblical scenes.

The patronage of the leading Florentine family, the Medici, was a spur to Renaissance art and scholarship. The Medici ruled the city from their fortified palace in the center of Florence, controlling affairs and dispensing favors through ownership of one of the largest banks in Europe. They sponsored artists and writers, commissioning works of art for their private homes and for display in the city's churches, to serve as an example of their power and benevolence. Despite the wealth and the sure hand of the Medici at governance, the city remained turbulent, always riven by social and political factions and contending with the other powerful city-states of Italy, such as Milan and Venice, for territory in northern Italy. The Medici were expelled during a revolt in 1494, after which a Dominican monk, Girolamo Savonarola, ruled the city in a fanatical reaction to what he saw as the city's vain luxuries. Books and art work were publicly burned, and the city lived in fear of Savonarola until he was overthrown and publicly executed in 1498.

At the prompting of brilliant writers, including Petrarch and Giovanni Boccaccio, Florentine scholars were rediscovering classical authors and adopted the principles of humanism, a view of the world that ignored religious doctrines and medieval metaphysics, and advocated a scientific and realistic investigation of the world. Cosimo de' Medici provided a gathering place for humanists who held discussions and debate in the Medici palaces and country villas, often subjecting their patron to criticism of his antidemocratic methods of rule. Florence was home to Poggio Bracciolini, Marsilio Ficino, Angelo Poliziano, and Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, the leading humanist scholars of the fifteenth century. The city also established itself as a leader in public education, with schooling available to most of the city's families and literacy reaching a high rate.

Florentine painters and sculptors, including Fra Angelico, Donatello, Lorenzo Ghiberti, Alessandro Botticelli, Fra Filippo Lippi, and Masaccio, developed a new style that more realistically depicted human form and emotion, while its architects adapted classical motifs in the design of churches, palaces, and civic buildings. The most important monument to this new era was the Duomo, the city's cathedral, which was surmounted by the largest dome raised since antiquity. The dome was designed by Brunelleschi and endures to this day as a symbol of the capabilities of Renaissance science and art. Other important architectural landmarks, including the Medici palace, the Pitti palace, the church of San Lorenzo, the Strozzi palace, and the baptistry, were raised as monuments to the city's wealth and culture.

The Medici returned to Florence in 1512, were exiled again in 1527, and finally returned in 1530 after a long siege of the city. In 1532 they named themselves as the dukes of the city. Under the rule of Cosimo de' Medici Florence regained its position as the wealthiest and most influential city-state of northern Italy. In 1557 the Florentine army conquered the rival town of Siena and in 1569, Cosimo de' Medici named himself the Grand Duke of Tuscany. By the late sixteenth century, patronage of major artists had passed to Rome and the popes, who engaged Michelangelo and other former Florentines to work in their city and create works of art that would reinforce the ongoing Catholic Counter-Reformation.

See Also: Brunelleschi, Filippo; Ghiberti, Lorenzo; Masaccio; Medici, Cosimo de'; Michelangelo Buonarroti; Pazzi Conspiracy

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Florence

Florence. It. city, capital of Tuscany, of great beauty and cultural significance. Sacred mus. flourished there from 14th cent. and reached a high-point in 16th cent. under patronage of Medici family. At the same periods a tradition of secular mus. in the form of madrigals and Ballate developed. Florence is also regarded as the birthplace of opera, which emerged as an offshoot of the court th. fests. held at the celebration of Medici weddings together with the interest of Florentine intellectuals, musicians, and poets in ancient Greek musical and dramatic theories. In particular, the informed meetings held at the homes of Giovanni de’ Bardi and Jacopo Corsi resulted in the composition of musical dramas by Peri, Caccini, and Cavalieri. First opera is generally believed to have been Peri's Dafne (1594–8), perf. in several versions before 1604, followed by his Euridice (1600). Pastorals by Monteverdi and Gagliano were perf. in Florence soon after their premières in Mantua.

A rich period occurred at the end of the 17th cent. under Prince Ferdinando de’ Medici (1663–1713). It was in his court that Cristofori built the first piano. The prince himself directed operas in the Villa di Pratolino, held nightly chamber concerts, and patronized church mus. During the 18th cent., Neapolitan and Venetian composers tended to dominate the Florentine musical scene. Its internationalization can be attrib. to the extinction of the Medicis in 1737 and their succession by the aristocratic families Habsburg and Lorraine. During the 19th cent., Florence was a centre of symphonic and chamber mus. rather than opera. A pf. factory with Viennese craftsmen was opened in 1828 and a Philharmonic Soc., the first in It., was founded in 1830. Beethoven's symphonies were better known in Florence than in the rest of It. Even so, opera—chiefly at the Teatro della Pergola—was not neglected. First perfs. were given of Donizetti's Parisina (1833) and Verdi's Macbeth (1847) and f. It. ps. of Weber's Der Freischütz (1843) and Meyerbeer's Dinorah (1867). The city's mus. life declined after 1870 until its revival in c.1913 by Bastianelli and Pizzetti, who were based in Florence as both critics and musicians. They concentrated on contemporary mus. On the occasion in 1923 when Casella cond. Schoenberg's Pierrot Lunaire, Puccini met Schoenberg. In 1928 Vittorio Gui founded and cond. one of It.'s first permanent orchs., the Orchestrale Fiorentina, and in 1933 Guido M. Gatti instituted the Maggio Musicale Fiorentino, a fest. held annually in May and June. It soon became internationally renowned for adventurous opera prods. and excellent concerts. Gui's orch. was re-named Orchestra del Maggio and has been cond. by Walter, Furtwängler, de Sabata, Mitropoulos, and Bruno Bartoletti. Directors of the fest. incl. Mario Labroca (1937–44), Francesco Siciliani (1950–6), and Riccardo Muti (1969–81). Stravinsky's Oedipus Rex had its It. première at the Maggio Musicale in 1937. Operatic f.ps. incl. Dallapiccola's Volo di notte (1940), Prokofiev's War and Peace (1953), Pezzati's Il sognatore (1982), and Bussotti's L'ispirazione (1988).

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Florence (cities, United States)

Florence:1 City (1990 pop. 36,426), seat of Lauderdale co., NW Ala., on the Tennessee River near Muscle Shoals and adjacent to Wilson Dam (a national historic landmark); inc. 1818. It is in a cotton and mineral area yielding coal, iron, bauxite, and asphalt. Power from the Wilson Dam and state dock installations have stimulated the growth of diversified industries. The mountain lakes in the area attract many tourists. The Univ. of North Alabama is in the city. Of interest are Pope's Tavern (1811), once a stagecoach stop and later a Civil War hospital, and a Native American mound, with a museum.

2 City (1990 pop. 29,813), seat of Florence co., NE S.C., in a farm and timber area; inc. 1871. The city is an important focal point for railroads (with extensive repair shops and yards) and developed as an industrial and trade distribution center. Florence manufactures a wide variety of goods, and tobacco and cotton are grown. During the Civil War it was a transportation and supply point and served as the site of a prison camp. It is the seat of Francis Marion College and a branch of the Univ. of South Carolina. An experimental station affiliated with Clemson Univ. and a U.S. agricultural laboratory are also there. Florence has museums, and nearby is a national Civil War cemetery.

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Florence

Florence (Firenze) Capital of Tuscany and Firenze province, on the River Arno, Italy. Initially an Etruscan town, it was a Roman colony from the 1st century bc to 5th century ad. In the 12th century, it became an independent commune and major trading centre. The site of many factional power struggles, especially the 13th-century war between the Guelphs and Ghibellines, it nevertheless became the cultural and intellectual centre of Italy. Florence's period of dominance coincided with the rule of the Medici family. It became a city-state and a leading centre of the Renaissance. Artists who contributed to the flourishing city included Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, and Donatello. In 1569 Florence became the capital of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany. Opera developed here in the late 16th century. From 1865 to 1871, it was the capital of the kingdom of Italy. Its many notable churches include: the Duomo gothic cathedral (1296); San Lorenzo, Florence's first cathedral rebuilt in 1425 by Brunelleschi, including a New Sacristy built by Michelangelo; and the monastery San Marco which holds masterpieces by Fra Angelico. Major art collections include the Uffizi and the Bargello Palace. Industries: tourism, craft, fashion. Pop. (2000) 374,501.

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"Florence." World Encyclopedia. . Retrieved October 24, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/florence

Florence

Florenceabeyance, conveyance, purveyance •creance • ambience •irradiance, radiance •expedience, obedience •audience •dalliance, mésalliance •salience •consilience, resilience •emollience • ebullience •convenience, lenience, provenience •impercipience, incipience, percipience •variance • experience •luxuriance, prurience •nescience • omniscience •insouciance • deviance •subservience • transience •alliance, appliance, compliance, defiance, misalliance, neuroscience, reliance, science •allowance •annoyance, clairvoyance, flamboyance •fluence, pursuance •perpetuance • affluence • effluence •mellifluence • confluence •congruence • issuance • continuance •disturbance •attendance, dependence, interdependence, resplendence, superintendence, tendance, transcendence •cadence •antecedence, credence, impedance •riddance • diffidence • confidence •accidence • precedence • dissidence •coincidence, incidence •evidence •improvidence, providence •residence •abidance, guidance, misguidance, subsidence •correspondence, despondence •accordance, concordance, discordance •avoidance, voidance •imprudence, jurisprudence, prudence •impudence • abundance • elegance •arrogance • extravagance •allegiance • indigence •counter-intelligence, intelligence •negligence • diligence • intransigence •exigence •divulgence, effulgence, indulgence, refulgence •convergence, divergence, emergence, insurgence, resurgence, submergence •significance •balance, counterbalance, imbalance, outbalance, valance •parlance • repellence • semblance •bivalence, covalence, surveillance, valence •sibilance • jubilance • vigilance •pestilence • silence • condolence •virulence • ambulance • crapulence •flatulence • feculence • petulance •opulence • fraudulence • corpulence •succulence, truculence •turbulence • violence • redolence •indolence • somnolence • excellence •insolence • nonchalance •benevolence, malevolence •ambivalence, equivalence •Clemence • vehemence •conformance, outperformance, performance •adamance • penance • ordinance •eminence • imminence •dominance, prominence •abstinence • maintenance •continence • countenance •sustenance •appurtenance, impertinence, pertinence •provenance • ordnance • repugnance •ordonnance • immanence •impermanence, permanence •assonance • dissonance • consonance •governance • resonance • threepence •halfpence • sixpence •comeuppance, tuppence, twopence •clarence, transparence •aberrance, deterrence, inherence, Terence •remembrance • entrance •Behrens, forbearance •fragrance • hindrance • recalcitrance •abhorrence, Florence, Lawrence, Lorentz •monstrance •concurrence, co-occurrence, occurrence, recurrence •encumbrance •adherence, appearance, clearance, coherence, interference, perseverance •assurance, durance, endurance, insurance •exuberance, protuberance •preponderance • transference •deference, preference, reference •difference • inference • conference •sufferance • circumference •belligerence • tolerance • ignorance •temperance • utterance • furtherance •irreverence, reverence, severance •deliverance • renascence • absence •acquiescence, adolescence, arborescence, coalescence, convalescence, deliquescence, effervescence, essence, evanescence, excrescence, florescence, fluorescence, incandescence, iridescence, juvenescence, luminescence, obsolescence, opalescence, phosphorescence, pubescence, putrescence, quiescence, quintessence, tumescence •obeisance, Renaissance •puissance •impuissance, reminiscence •beneficence, maleficence •magnificence, munificence •reconnaissance • concupiscence •reticence •licence, license •nonsense •nuisance, translucence •innocence • conversance • sentience •impatience, patience •conscience •repentance, sentence •acceptance • acquaintance •acquittance, admittance, intermittence, pittance, quittance, remittance •assistance, coexistence, consistence, distance, existence, insistence, outdistance, persistence, resistance, subsistence •instance • exorbitance •concomitance •impenitence, penitence •appetence •competence, omnicompetence •inheritance • capacitance • hesitance •Constance • importance • potence •conductance, inductance, reluctance •substance • circumstance •omnipotence • impotence •inadvertence • grievance •irrelevance, relevance •connivance, contrivance •observance • sequence • consequence •subsequence • eloquence •grandiloquence, magniloquence •brilliance • poignance •omnipresence, pleasance, presence •complaisance • malfeasance •incognizance, recognizance •usance • recusance

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"Florence." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Encyclopedia.com. 24 Oct. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Florence." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Encyclopedia.com. (October 24, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/florence

"Florence." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Retrieved October 24, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/florence