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Erie, Lake

Lake Erie, 9,940 sq mi (25,745 sq km), 241 mi (388 km) long and from 30 to 57 mi (48–92 km) wide, bordered on the N by S Ont., Canada, on the E by W N.Y., on the S by NW Pa. and N Ohio, and on the W by SE Mich. and NW Ohio.; fourth largest of the Great Lakes. It is 572 ft (174 m) above sea level with a maximum depth of 210 ft (64 m), making it the shallowest of the Great Lakes and the only one with a floor above sea level.

Lake Erie is part of the Great Lakes–St. Lawrence Seaway system and is linked to Lake Huron by the Detroit River, Lake St. Clair, and St. Clair River, and with Lake Ontario by the Niagara River (Lake Erie's only natural outlet) and the Welland Canal. The New York State Canal System links the lake with the Hudson River. Several small rivers, including the Maumee, Sandusky, and Cuyahoga, flow into the lake from the south; the Grand River enters from Ontario. Lake Erie is partially icebound in winter and is usually closed to navigation from mid-December to the end of March.

Rich agricultural lands border the Canadian shore, where the chief towns are Port Colborne and Port Stanley. The principal U.S. cities on the lake are Buffalo, Erie, Cleveland, and Toledo; all are ports with heavy industry. Numerous recreation facilities are provided at national, provincial, and state parks located on the lake's islands and shores.

Untreated industrial and municipal wastes from lakeshore cities—and from Detroit, whose wastes enter the western end of the lake—polluted the waters and rendered surrounding areas foul smelling. A U.S.-Canadian pact (1972) ended the discharge of contaminating materials into the water, and the environmental damage abated. In the early 21st cent., however, an increase in phosphorus from agricultural runoff contributed to large algal blooms in the lake; the algae's decomposition also created significant oxygen-depleted "dead zones" on the lake bottom.

The first European to see the lake was French explorer Louis Jolliet in 1669. The British and the French, and later the British and the Americans, fought for its control. The battle of Lake Erie (Sept. 10, 1813), a naval engagement in the War of 1812, led successfully by the U.S. leader Oliver H. Perry against the British, was fought at Put-in Bay.

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"Erie, Lake." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 24 Sep. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Erie, Lake." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (September 24, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/erie-lake

"Erie, Lake." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved September 24, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/erie-lake

Erie, Lake

Erie, Lake Great Lake in North America, bordered by Ontario (w), New York (e), Ohio and Pennsylvania (s), and Michigan (sw); part of the Great Lakes-St Lawrence Seaway. It was the site of a British defeat by the USA in the War of 1812. It has been polluted by the cities on its shores. Government regulations are now aiding its recovery. Area: 25,667sq km (9910sq mi). Max. depth: 64m (210ft).

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"Erie, Lake." World Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. 24 Sep. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Erie, Lake." World Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. (September 24, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/erie-lake

"Erie, Lake." World Encyclopedia. . Retrieved September 24, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/erie-lake

Erie, Lake

Erie, Lake one of the five Great Lakes of North America, situated on the border between Canada and the US. It is linked to Lake Huron by the Detroit River and to Lake Ontario by the Welland Ship Canal and the Niagara River, which is its only natural outlet.

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"Erie, Lake." The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. . Encyclopedia.com. 24 Sep. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Erie, Lake." The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. . Encyclopedia.com. (September 24, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/erie-lake

"Erie, Lake." The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. . Retrieved September 24, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/erie-lake