Skip to main content
Select Source:

Hope

Hope

BIBLIOGRAPHY

In an ancient Greek myth, Zeus was irate at humans for having stolen fire from the gods. In the spirit of revenge, he fashioned a young maiden named Pandora and, using reverse psychology, sent her to earth with a dowry chest, with the crucial instruction not to open it. Of course, her curiosity got the best of her, and she opened the lid. Out came a plague of evil forces. Panicked at what she had unleashed, Pandora tried to close the chest, only to find that hope was stuck on the lid. Hope could overcome the evil forces unleashed. Thus hope came into the world.

A young couple stood at the graveside of their two twin daughters, born prematurely, as a circle of family and friends sang the hymn, Lead, Kindly Light, Amid the Encircling Gloom. Having their precious daughters buried near their great grandparents in a historic cemetery brought them comfort and hope in the face of perinatal loss (Callister 2006). Hopefulness in such situations is a personal, comforting, and life-sustaining belief that even in difficult times, life has meaning. Hope is also a belief that something favorable can happen for oneself or others in the future. P. S. Hinds (1984) defined hope as the human characteristic that allows an individual, irrespective of age, to transcend disappointments, pursue goals, and diminish the sense of the future as unbearable or futile. Hope is a force contributing to a persons will to live (Cousins 1989).

Detractors to hope exist. It is postulated that inside every person there is a spirit of hopefulness that can be influenced negatively or positively by others. Suffering and feeling alone or unappreciated, along with unaddressed spiritual needs, are some of the challenges to being hopeful.

James Averill and his associates (1990) asked people to describe circumstances in which they thought hope would be important. Responders described periods when they perceived some degree of personal control over their lives, and times when their life goals were important, had a reasonable chance of being reached, and were socially and morally acceptable.

Strategies that contribute to the strengthening of hope include believing in oneself, trusting in the good intentions of others, and feeling close to another person. For many people, faith and religious beliefs also contribute to hopefulness. Hope is vital for those who have been diagnosed with a serious, life-threatening, or terminal illness, as well as for their families. Those who lack hope find no meaning in life or find it difficult to persevere in troubling times. They may lack or lose a sense of well-being, and doubt the possibility of favorable outcomes. The components of hope include positive thinking or optimism, reality-based and future oriented goals, positive future for self or others, and positive support systems (Hendricks-Ferguson 1997, p. 76). Hope is essential to negotiating difficult life challenges. Knowing that others have hope for positive outcomes can foster hope in individuals.

On the other hand, hope may be perceived by others as evidence that individuals and families are unrealistically positive. Thus, hope may become simply magic when one has a wishful expectation that everything will turn out all right based on luck, fate, or the intervention of a higher power. Still, hope can be fostered by reflecting on positive outcomes and by formulating potential goals. Hope thus becomes realistic as one recognizes the existence of limitations or conditions.

Multiple tools have been developed to measure hope, including the adult hope scale developed by C. R. Snyder and colleagues (1991). Eight items are ranked on an eight-point Likert scale from definitely false to definitely true, with four agency items such as I energetically pursue my goals. The higher the score, the higher the level of overall hope. A similar childrens hope scale has also been developed.

Hope has been studied across the lifespan. Kaye Herth (1998) used interviews and drawings to study sixty homeless children who had lived through multiple losses. Themes included connectedness, internal resources, cognitive strategies, energy, and hope objects. The children used symbols in their drawings, most often trees or rainbows, which for them symbolized hope. As one homeless adolescent wrote, a young tree is very fragile and in need of just the right amount of water and sunlight to grow; hope at first is very fragile but flourishes with care (Herth 1998, p. 1057). Many of the children drew pictures of houses, with open doorways and flowers and favorite toys, indicating a longing to have a real home. One child who drew a sad face explained, sometimes you have to be sad before you can smile again (Herth 1998, p. 1058). The adolescents shared stories of significant losses but demonstrated inner strength that sustained their hope. One favorite book at the shelter was The Little Engine that Could, with the hopeful refrain, I think I can, I think I can.

Adela Yarcheski and associates (1994) studied ninetynine high school students, finding statistically significant positive correlations between perceived hopefulness and social support, as well as hopefulness and general well-being. Hopefulness was fostered through social interaction, mutuality, attachment, intimacy, affirmation, encouragement, and a nurturing environment. Hopefulness in adolescents with cancer has also been studied and has been linked with improved quality of life and better health even in the face of chronic or terminal illnesses (Hendricks-Ferguson 1997).

Hope is experienced differently by those who are chronically ill than by those who are healthy. Dal Sook Kim and associates (2006) studied hope in chronically ill hospitalized patients and identified five life orientations related to hope:

  • Externalism orientationhope based on reliance on family, friends, or God.
  • Pragmatic orientationhope in the ability to accomplish small things in life.
  • Reality orientationhope manifested by realistically enjoying that which can be.
  • Future orientationhope focused on positive possibilities that may exist in the future, which may include a strong reliance on a higher power; for example, a person may say, I feel hope in my faith in God or I feel hope when I realize that I am in Gods hands.
  • Internal orientationhope oriented toward the self.

J. M. Morse and B. Doberneck (1995) studied patterns of hope exhibited in a variety of people undergoing different life experiences. Their subjects included breast cancer survivors, individuals waiting for heart transplants, unemployed mothers, and persons with spinal cord injuries. The presence and function of hope has also been studied in people with acute spinal cord injuries (Lohne and Severinsson 2004) and adults undergoing bone marrow transplants for leukemia (Ersek 1992). In Mary Erseks study, factors associated with hope included feelings of powerfulness or control, meaning or purpose in life, adequate social support, and positive self esteem (1992, p. 883). Ersek identified the structure of hopefulness as:

  • Appraising the illness in a nonthreatening manner (seeing it as a positive event).
  • Cognitively managing the illness experience (including the practice of joking).
  • Managing emotional responses to the illness.
  • Managing a sense of control (either maintaining or relinquishing control).
  • Taking a stance toward illness and treatment (fighting the illness or accepting it).
  • Managing the uncertainty (minimizing or maximizing the uncertainty).
  • Focusing on the future (living from day to day or focusing on the long term).
  • Viewing the self in relation to the illness (minimizing the illness and maximizing personal strengths).

Further research is needed to increase our understanding of hope, including how to mediate the variables and strategies that enhance hope in individuals across the lifespan. Many experts assume that sources of hope include support from family and significant others, as well as spiritual beliefs (Hendricks-Ferguson 1997). How these sources of hope make a difference merits further inquiry.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Averill, James R., George Catlin, and K. K. Chon. 1990. Rules of Hope. New York: Springer.

Callister, Lynn Clark. 2006. Perinatal Loss: A Family Perspective. Journal of Perinatal and Neonatal Nursing 20 (3): 227234.

Cousins, Norman. 1989. Head First: The Biology of Hope. New York: Dutton.

Ersek, Mary. 1992. The Process of Maintaining Hope in Adults Undergoing Bone Marrow Transplantation for Leukemia. Oncology Nursing Forum 19 (6): 883889.

Hendricks-Ferguson, Verna L. 1997. An Analysis of the Concept of Hope in the Adolescent with Cancer. Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing 14 (2): 7380.

Herth, Kaye. 1998. Hope as Seen through the Eyes of Homeless Children. Journal of Advanced Nursing 28 (5): 10531062.

Hinds, P. S. 1984. Inducing a Definition of Hope through the Use of Grounded Theory Methodology. Journal of Advanced Nursing 9: 357362.

Kim, Dal Sook, Suzie Kim Hesook, Donna Schwartz-Barcott, and Donna Zucker. 2006. The Nature of Hope in Hospitalized Chronically Ill Patients. International Journal of Nursing Studies 43: 547556.

Kylma, Jari, and Katri Vehvilainen-Julkunen. 1997. Hope in Nursing Research. Journal of Advanced Nursing 25 (2): 364371.

Lohne, Vibeke, and Elisabeth Severinsson. 2004. Hope and Despair: The Awakening of Hope Following Acute Spinal Cord InjuryAn Interpretive Study. International Journal of Nursing Studies 41: 881890.

Morse, J. M., and B. Doberneck. 1995. Delineating the Concept of Hope. Image: Journal of Nursing Scholarship 27 (4): 277286.

Ritchie, Mary Ann. 2001. Self-esteem and Hopefulness in Adolescents with Cancer. Journal of Pediatric Nursing 16 (1): 3542.

Snyder, C. R., Cheri Harris, John R. Anderson, et al. 1991. The Will and Ways: Development and Validation of an Individual-Differences Measure of Hope. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 60: 570585.

Yarcheski, Adela, Mary Ann Scoloveno, and Noreen Mahon. 1994. Social Support and Well-being in Adolescents: The Mediating Role of Hopefulness. Nursing Research 43 (5): 288292.

Lynn Clark Callister

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Hope." International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences. . Encyclopedia.com. 17 Dec. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Hope." International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences. . Encyclopedia.com. (December 17, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences/applied-and-social-sciences-magazines/hope

"Hope." International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences. . Retrieved December 17, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences/applied-and-social-sciences-magazines/hope

Hope

Hope


The word hope refers to a concept, emotion, attitude of mind, and object of expectation that is expressed in different ways in different cultures. Its meaning develops in association with other notions, as in the cluster of faith, hope, and love. It may be focused on one central objecthope in God, or much less definitesometimes people may half-hope for things. Such reflection is a human activity; rabbits do not reflect much on what they will do when they retire.

In order to survey the shape of hope an element of systematization is necessary. This will be invariably selective. Surveys of the Christian doctrine of hope have to try to avoid finding harmony in a tradition where there are significant elements of dissonance. There is a risk of assimilating too easily notions of hope in non-Christian sources with Christian paradigms. Linguistic usage, even in distinctive discourses, is rarely monolithic. Generalizations about the Greek view of hope, or whatever, are liable to be limited in their usefulness, and may easily obscure the balance of overlap and diversity in particular usage.


Reflections on hope

With these reservations, the tradition of theological reflection on hope may be instructive. Reflection upon possible futures, in optimistic anticipation, in trepidation, in trust, in resignation, does not always occur in a religious context. But it is an activity described and assessed as centrally important in major world religions. God is the source and the object of hope, of a positive future for the created order. Prophets are seen as sources of hope. Their return in various forms is anticipated as the expected fulfilment of hope. Transformation of the present world order, of the religious community, and of the self, as a physical or spiritual entity or both, as part of this process, is the content of hope. How this transformation is to be achieved is differently envisaged, from the cave paintings of Neolithic times to modern images of virtual reality. Hope is the antidote to despair, a widespread and damaging aspect of human life. The transformation may be encouraged by appropriately empathic human activity, from human sacrifice to psychotherapy.

The ancient Mediterranean world produced a huge variety of reflection on hope, sacred and secular, from the Greek poet Pindar (c. 520438 b.c.e.) to Roman statesman and orator Cicero (10643 b.c.e.) and beyond through the Church Fathers. These variations were accessibly documented by Rudolf Bultmann (18841976) in his standard article on hope in Gerhard Kittel's Theological Dictionary of the New Testament, which emphasized the different usages, and in Geoffrey Lampe's A Patristic Greek Lexicon (1961). Drawing on an early monograph by Hans Georg Gadamer (19002002), Bultmann illustrated from Plato the twin aspects of objective hope and subjective expectation in human reflection on existence, reflection that is essential to give people something to live for. Hope is associated with love, for it is drawn towards the good and the beautiful. In a religious context, as in the Mysteries, hope may be sustained by the promise of eternal life. Plato was aware that hope may be dangerous and deceptive. Hence perhaps the turn by the Stoic philosophers to an avoidance of hopeif one does not hope for too much, one will not suffer disappointment.

Hope in the Hebrew Bible and, following this tradition, in the New Testament is centered upon God and the promise of God for the future of the people of God. In the Psalms a secure hope is based on God; any other basis is a false security. In the New Testament, especially in the Pauline writings, there is patient trust in God, in the expectation of the unfolding of God's future. In 1 Corinthians 13 hope is bound up with faith and love. The resurrection of Jesus Christ becomes the cornerstone of hope. The New Testament is everywhere colored by the overarching hope in eschatological expectation of the coming of the Kingdom. This foundation of hope on the presence of Godpast, present, and to comeis taken up in the Fathers and in the theologies of the medieval, Reformation, and modern periods, reshaped according to the cultural imagination of the period (classically in the tradition of the three theological virtues of faith, hope, and love). Augustine of Hippo (354430 c.e.) reflects the dialectic between hope and memory. For Thomas Aquinas (c. 12251274), hope is not simply the fruit of experience but hope in God is a learned habit of will. Not to hope is sinful. Martin Luther (14831546) and John Calvin (15091564) both interpret the gospel as promise, though this promise is of course firmly based on past and present action by God.

Notions of eschatological hope tended to be replaced in modern Western thought by ideas of progress and evolution. There is a unique amalgam of eschatological hope, apocalyptic imagery, and Enlightenment progress in Karl Marx (18181883) whose work was classically taken up by the mid-twentieth century philosopher Ernst Bloch in his massive The Principle of Hope (19521959). Bloch in turn famously inspired Jürgen Moltmann to write his Theology of Hope (1964), which sparked off a rediscovery of the importance of hope and a reorientation towards the future in theology. The turn to eschatology, and the thought of the determination of the present by the future, continues to be developed by Wolfhart Pannenberg and others.

For Luther hope was basically individual hope. Moltmann stressed the social and political dimensions, providing an important stimulus for a theology of liberation or emancipation, and for a new turn to the future as a focus for theology. This continues to be developed as a liberation of the oppressed through the freedom of the gospel, and through black, gay, feminist, and other theologies. A theology of the Holy Spirit understands the future as a future of Christlikeness.


Science and the theology of hope

What does theology of hope have to do with the dialogue between science and religion? Hope has objective as well as subjective dimensions. The future of the physical universe is certainly relevant to one strand of the complex thread of Christian hope. Exploration of divine action in relation to human life, through the natural sciences from cosmology to neuroscience, is seminal to grounds for hope. Hope is more than wishful thinking or blind optimism despite unpleasant facts. It is the hope of love, of corporate participation in the life of God.

A great deal of Christian theology has been devoted to engagement with the past and with the sense of tradition. Doctrines of creation have been especially past-oriented. Faith believes that the future of tradition may be much longer, and much more exciting, than its past. Creation points forward to new creation, to the unfolding of the divine purpose for the cosmos. Here the concept of hope is central. The future is not to be feared, for it is God's future. This is in turn a challenge to be open to new ideas and ready to revise existing paradigms. Hope suggests humility in the face of an unfolding mystery, an openness to surprise, and willingness to accept risk. Hope rests on the past fulfilment of God's promise for humanity and is resolved to look forward with confidence.


See also Eschatology; Holy Spirit; Liberation; Liberation Theology; Plato; Progress; Thomas Aquinas


Bibliography

bloch, ernest. the principle of hope (1952-1959), trans.neville plaice, stephen plaice, and paul knight. cambridge, mass.: mit press, 1995.

bultmann, rudolf. "hope." in theological dictionary of the new testament, ed. gerhard kittel, trans. geoffrey w. bromiley. grand rapids, mich.: eerdmans, 1967.

kittel, gerhard, ed. theological dictionary of the new testament, trans. geoffret w. bromiley. grand rapids, mich.: eerdmans, 19641976 .

moltmann, jürgen. theology of hope: on the ground and the implications of a christian eschatology. london: scm press, 1964.

newlands, george. generosity and the christian future. london: spck, 1997.

watts, fraser. "subjective and objective hope." in the end of the world and the ends of god: science and theology on eschatology, eds. john polkinghorne and michael welker. philadelphia, pa.: trinity press international, 2000.


george newlands

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Hope." Encyclopedia of Science and Religion. . Encyclopedia.com. 17 Dec. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Hope." Encyclopedia of Science and Religion. . Encyclopedia.com. (December 17, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/hope

"Hope." Encyclopedia of Science and Religion. . Retrieved December 17, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/hope

hope

hope / hōp/ • n. 1. a feeling of expectation and desire for a certain thing to happen: he looked through her belongings in the hope of coming across some information | I had high hopes of making the Olympic team. ∎  a person or thing that may help or save someone: their only hope is surgery. ∎  grounds for believing that something good may happen: he does see some hope for the future. 2. archaic a feeling of trust. • v. [intr.] want something to happen or be the case: he's hoping for an offer of compensation | I hope that the kids are OK. ∎  intend if possible to do something: we're hoping to address all these issues. PHRASES: hope against hope cling to a mere possibility: they were hoping against hope that he would find a way out. hope for the best hope for a favorable outcome. in hopes of with the aim of: I lay on a towel in the park in hopes of getting a tan. in hopes that hoping that: they are screaming in hopes that a police launch will pick us up. not a hope inf. no chance at all.DERIVATIVES: hop·er n.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"hope." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Encyclopedia.com. 17 Dec. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"hope." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Encyclopedia.com. (December 17, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/hope-1

"hope." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Retrieved December 17, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/hope-1

hope

hope one of the three theological virtues.
hope deferred makes the heart sick proverbial saying, late 14 century, originally with biblical allusion; the implication is that it is worse to have had one's hopes raised and then dashed, than to have been resigned to not having something.
hope for the best and prepare for the worst proverbial saying, mid 16th century, recommending a balance between optimism and realism.
hope is a good breakfast but a bad supper while it is pleasant to begin something in a hopeful mood, the hopes need to have been fulfilled by the time it ends. The saying is recorded from the mid 17th century.
hope springs eternal a view that human nature is instinctively optimistic; this proverbial saying of the mid 18th century derives from Alexander Pope's Essay on Man (1733), ‘Hope springs eternal in the human breast: Man never Is, but always To be blest.’
if it were not for hope, the heart would break hope wards of complete despair; proverbial saying, mid 13th century.

See also abandon hope, while there's life there's hope, he that lives in hope.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"hope." The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. . Encyclopedia.com. 17 Dec. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"hope." The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. . Encyclopedia.com. (December 17, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/hope

"hope." The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. . Retrieved December 17, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/hope

Hope

334. Hope (See also Optimism.)

  1. anchor emblem of optimism; steadfastly secured the soul in adversity. [N.T.: Hebrews, 6:1819]
  2. cinquefoil traditional representation of hope. [Flower Symbol-ism and Heraldry: Jobes, 341]
  3. Emigrants, The shows Norwegians in Dakota wheatlands striving for better life. [Nor. Lit.: The Emigrants, Magill I, 244246]
  4. flowering almond symbol of spring; blooms in winter. [Flower Symbolism: Jobes, 71]
  5. Great Pumpkin, the awaited each Halloween by Linus. [Comics: Peanuts in Home, 542]
  6. hawthorn symbol of optimism. [Flower Symbolism: Flora Symbolica, 174; Kunz, 328]
  7. Iceman Cometh, The The lie of the pipe dream is what gives life. [Am. Lit.: The Iceman Cometh ]
  8. Of Mice and Men portrays a philosophy that humans are made of hopes and dreams. [Am. Lit.: Of Mice and Men ]
  9. rainbow Gods assurance He would not send another great flood. [O.T.: Genesis, 9:1216]
  10. snowdrop symbol of optimism. [Flower Symbolism: Flora Symbolica, 177; Kunz, 326]

Hopelessness (See DESPAIR .)

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Hope." Allusions--Cultural, Literary, Biblical, and Historical: A Thematic Dictionary. . Encyclopedia.com. 17 Dec. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Hope." Allusions--Cultural, Literary, Biblical, and Historical: A Thematic Dictionary. . Encyclopedia.com. (December 17, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/hope

"Hope." Allusions--Cultural, Literary, Biblical, and Historical: A Thematic Dictionary. . Retrieved December 17, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/hope

Hope

Hope, city (1990 pop. 9,643), seat of Hempstead co., SW Ark. Hope is a commercial center and a distribution point for an agricultural region. Its industries include food processing, printing, and the making of machinery and apparel. The city was the boyhood home of President Bill Clinton.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Hope." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 17 Dec. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Hope." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (December 17, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/hope

"Hope." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved December 17, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/hope

hope

hope sb. Late OE. (tō)hopa, corr. to OLF. tōhopa, MLG., MDu. hope (Du. hoop).
Also hope vb. Late OE. hopian = (M)Du. hopen. of unkn. orig.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"hope." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. . Encyclopedia.com. 17 Dec. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"hope." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. . Encyclopedia.com. (December 17, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/hope-2

"hope." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. . Retrieved December 17, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/hope-2

HOPE

HOPE A functional language, one of the first such languages to be widely used.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"HOPE." A Dictionary of Computing. . Encyclopedia.com. 17 Dec. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"HOPE." A Dictionary of Computing. . Encyclopedia.com. (December 17, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/computing/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/hope

"HOPE." A Dictionary of Computing. . Retrieved December 17, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/computing/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/hope

hope

hopeaslope, cope, dope, elope, grope, hope, interlope, lope, mope, nope, ope, pope, rope, scope, slope, soap, taupe, tope, trope •myope • telescope • periscope •stereoscope • bioscope • stroboscope •kaleidoscope • CinemaScope •gyroscope • microscope • horoscope •stethoscope • antelope • envelope •zoetrope • skipping-rope • tightrope •towrope • heliotrope • lycanthrope •philanthrope • thaumatrope •misanthrope •isotope, radioisotope

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"hope." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Encyclopedia.com. 17 Dec. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"hope." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Encyclopedia.com. (December 17, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/hope-0

"hope." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Retrieved December 17, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/hope-0