Richard Challoner (chăl´ənər), 1691–1781, English Roman Catholic prelate. Brought up a Protestant, he became a Roman Catholic in his teens and was ordained in 1716. In 1730 he returned from Douai to England, where he was widely known for the number of conversions he made. In 1738 he was forced to leave England because he published an open reply to an anti-Catholic pamphlet by an Anglican. In 1739, Challoner was appointed coadjutor of the vicar apostolic in London. He was consecrated titular bishop of Debra in 1741. The rest of his life he spent working among his people (after 1758 as vicar apostolic) in the face of great difficulties. From 1765 to 1780 a series of efforts were instigated to molest English Catholics, and Bishop Challoner was involved; in the Gordon riots (1780) he had to flee London for his life. He was an indefatigable writer. He revised the Douay version of the Bible, his revision becoming the standard one chiefly used by English-speaking Catholics. His chief learned works are on English Catholicism since the Reformation; they did much to preserve the memory of English Catholics. He wrote a number of devotional works; The Garden of the Soul (1740) was especially popular. Bishop Challoner's translations of the Imitation of Christ were standard.
See biography by M. Trappes-Lomax (1936).
"Challoner, Richard." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (December 14, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/challoner-richard
"Challoner, Richard." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved December 14, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/challoner-richard
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.