1. In the Qurʾān, frequently used of those who enter into the blessings enjoyed by their ancestors (e.g. 6. 165; 24. 55; 27. 62); and specifically of Adam as khalīfat Allāh on earth (2. 20).
2. The successor(s) of the Prophet Muḥammad. The first three Khulafāʾ were Abu Bakr, ʿUmar, and ʿUthmān. But some thought that ʿAlī, Muḥammad's nearest male relative, should have succeeded, and become the party (shīʿa) of ʿAli. His claim prevailed briefly, and he was the fourth caliph; but other dynasties, ʿUmayyad (661–750 CE), then ʿAbbasid (750–1517) were established, and the Shīʿa became minorities with their own rulers and successions (see IMĀM). The first four khulafāʾ are known as arRāshidūn, the upright or rightly guided. The Caliphate was assumed by the Ottoman Turkish rulers (sultāns) as a title, and it was abolished in the secularizing reforms of Kemal Atatürk in 1924.
"Khalīfa." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. . Encyclopedia.com. (October 20, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/khalifa
"Khalīfa." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. . Retrieved October 20, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/khalifa
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.