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opposition

opposition. The concept of a loyal parliamentary opposition grew slowly for two reasons. As long as the monarch played an active part in government, opposition was bound to be tainted with disloyalty: though the opposition to Charles I in the 1640s claimed to be loyal and conservative, it ended by cutting his head off and abolishing the monarchy. Secondly, the existence from 1688 until 1760 of an active Jacobite cause retarded the concept since some of the Tories in opposition undoubtedly wished to overthrow the regime itself. Nevertheless, the concept made progress in the 18th cent. and was helped by the fact that successive princes of Wales, who could scarcely be accused of treason, went into opposition to their father's government. Monarchs continued to find the concept suspect and the protestations of loyalty insincere: George III observed in 1778 that ‘men who have been active in opposition rarely make useful servants to the crown’—a phrase which reveals a slightly old-fashioned attitude. Charles Fox, on the other hand, declared in 1783 that a ‘systematic opposition to a dangerous government is, in my opinion, a noble employment for the brightest faculties’. The phrase ‘His Majesty's Opposition’ was first used jocularly by Hobhouse in 1826 and was so useful that it took root. The validity of the concept was subsequently recognized in a variety of ways. From 1937 the leader of the opposition received an official salary and is now provided with an official car and chauffeur: the chief opposition whip and two assistant whips also receive salaries. He is accorded prominence in public ceremonies, such as the Armistice Day commemoration. All parliamentary parties have since 1975 received some public funding. Governments sometimes offer confidential information to opposition spokesmen, who are frequently wary lest it blunt their attacks. The concept of opposition is close to the heart of parliamentary democracy, not merely in curbing government, resisting encroachments upon liberty, and keeping ministers on their toes, but as a stabilizing factor by offering to the most embittered of citizens hope that governments do not last forever.

J. A. Cannon

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"opposition." The Oxford Companion to British History. . Encyclopedia.com. 15 Dec. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"opposition." The Oxford Companion to British History. . Encyclopedia.com. (December 15, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/opposition

"opposition." The Oxford Companion to British History. . Retrieved December 15, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/opposition

opposition

op·po·si·tion / ˌäpəˈzishən/ • n. resistance or dissent, expressed in action or argument: there was considerable opposition to the proposal the regime cracked down against the threat of opposition. ∎  (often the opposition) a group of adversaries or competitors, esp. a rival political party or athletic team. ∎  (the opposition) the principal political party opposed to the one in office. ∎  a contrast or antithesis: a nature-culture opposition. ∎ Logic (of two propositions) the relation of having the same subject and predicate, but differing in quantity, quality, or both. ∎  Astron. & Astrol. the apparent position of two celestial objects that are directly opposite each other in the sky, esp. when a superior planet is opposite the sun. PHRASES: in opposition in contrast or conflict: they found themselves in opposition to federal policy.DERIVATIVES: op·po·si·tion·al / -shənl/ adj.

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"opposition." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Encyclopedia.com. 15 Dec. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"opposition." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Encyclopedia.com. (December 15, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/opposition-0

"opposition." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Retrieved December 15, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/opposition-0

opposition

opposition, in astronomy, alignment of two celestial bodies on opposite sides of the sky as viewed from earth. Opposition of the moon or planets is often determined in reference to the sun. Only the superior planets, whose orbits lie outside that of the earth, can be in opposition to the sun. When a planet is in opposition to the sun, its elongation is 180°, it exhibits retrograde motion, and its phase is full. This is a good time to observe a planet, since it rises when the sun sets and is visible throughout the night, setting as the sun rises.

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"opposition." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 15 Dec. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"opposition." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (December 15, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/opposition

"opposition." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved December 15, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/opposition

OPPOSITION

OPPOSITION.
1. In LINGUISTICS, a functional contrast between partially similar elements in a language system: for example, between the meanings and uses of the negative prefixes un- and non- in unprofessional and nonprofessional, where un- is judgemental and non- is neutral.

2. In PHONETICS, the nature of the contrast between a pair of PHONEMES: for example, /t/ is a voiceless alveolar stop and /d/ is a voiced alveolar stop. The two consonants agree in place and manner of articulation, but fall into the opposition of voicing. See MINIMAL PAIR.

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"OPPOSITION." Concise Oxford Companion to the English Language. . Encyclopedia.com. 15 Dec. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"OPPOSITION." Concise Oxford Companion to the English Language. . Encyclopedia.com. (December 15, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/opposition

"OPPOSITION." Concise Oxford Companion to the English Language. . Retrieved December 15, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/opposition