Park, Robert Ezra
. Park argued that the basic process underlying social relationships was competition; however, because of human interdependence due to the division of labour, this competition always involves elements of unplanned co-operation (thus yielding ‘competitive cooperation’). In this way, people come to form symbiotic relationships, both at the spatial and cultural levels. These ideas are developed in the collection of essays (many by Park himself) on The City (1925) and his monograph on Human Communities (1952).
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