Ticonderoga, Capture of
TICONDEROGA, CAPTURE OF
TICONDEROGA, CAPTURE OF (1775). The French fort built in October 1755 by Marquis de Lotbinière, commanding the route between lakes Champlain and George, fell into English hands during the French and Indian War after Sir Jeffrey Amherst's successful siege in 1759. The English renamed it Fort Ticonderoga, New York.
In 1775, Massachusetts revolutionaries hatched a plan to capture Fort Ticonderoga to obtain cannon for the siege of Boston. Early in the morning of 10 May, Ethan Allen, Benedict Arnold, and eighty-three men crossed Lake Champlain in two boats. The expedition passed through the ruined walls and, without bloodshed, quickly subdued the sleepy garrison of two officers and forty-three men. On 5 December, Henry Knox arrived at
Ticonderoga to supervise the moving of fourteen mortars and coehorns, two howitzers, and forty-three cannons. The guns were taken in groups by water to Fort George, at the southern end of Lake George; on sleds drawn by oxen and horses to Claverack, New York; and thence east through the mountains to Cambridge, Massachusetts. By 24 January 1776, Gen. George Washington was able to use these cannons to force the British from Boston.
In 1777, the British moved to recapture Fort Ticonderoga. British Gen. John Burgoyne's army of more than nine thousand was opposed by Gen. Arthur Saint Clair with about twenty-five hundred men. The British dragged cannon up Sugar Hill (Mount Defiance), which commanded the fort from the southwest. Shortly after midnight on 6 July, Saint Clair wisely retreated southward along the eastern shore of Lake Champlain, leaving the fort to the British.
Billias, George Athan. George Washington's Opponents: British Generals and Admirals in the American Revolution. New York: Morrow, 1969.
Bird, Harrison. March to Saratoga: General Burgoyne and the American Campaign, 1777. New York: Oxford University Press, 1963.
French, Allen. The Taking of Ticonderoga in 1775. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1928.
Gilchrist, Helen Ives. Fort Ticonderoga in History. [Fort Ticonderoga? N.Y.]: Printed for the Fort Ticonderoga Museum, [192-?].
Hargrove, Richard J. General John Burgoyne. Newark: University of Delaware Press, 1983.
Edward P.Alexander/a. r.
"Ticonderoga, Capture of." Dictionary of American History. . Encyclopedia.com. (October 23, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/ticonderoga-capture
"Ticonderoga, Capture of." Dictionary of American History. . Retrieved October 23, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/ticonderoga-capture
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.