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Founded: 1796; Incorporated: 1836
Location: Northeastern Ohio on the southern shore of Lake Erie, United States, North America
Motto: Progress and Prosperity
Flag: Red left panel, white center panel with emblem, and blue right panel.
Time Zone: 7 am Eastern Standard Time (EST) = noon Greenwich Mean Time (GMT)
Ethnic Composition: City—49% white; 47% black; 5% Hispanic origin (of any race); 21.7% of Cleveland's European Americans were of German ancestry; Irish, 12.5%; English, 9.1%; Italian, 7.1%; Polish, 6.1%; Slovak, 4.2%; French, 2.8%; Hungarian, 2.4%; Yugoslav, 1.6%; Scottish/Irish, 1.6%; Russian, 1.2%; Czech, 1.5%; and Dutch, 1.5%.
Elevation: 201 meters (660 feet) above sea level. Most of the city is on a level plain 18–24 meters (60–80 feet) above Lake Erie; an abrupt ridge rises 150 meters (500 feet) above the shore on the eastern edge of the city along its border with the community of Cleveland Heights.
Latitude and Longitude: 41°30′N, 81°70′W
Coastline: 22 kilometers (14 miles) on the southern shore of Lake Erie.
Climate: Hot, humid summers and cold, snowy winters. The climate is influenced by Lake Erie, which moderates both summer heat and winter cold.
Annual Mean Temperature: 10°C (50°F); January–3°C (27°F); July 23°C (73°F).
Seasonal Average Snowfall: 52 inches (132 cm); western suburbs, 45 inches (112 cm); eastern suburbs, 90 inches per year (230 cm).
Average Annual Precipitation (rainfall and melted snow): 32 inches (81 cm).
Government: Mayor and 21-member City Council
Weights and Measures: Standard US
Monetary Units: Standard US
Telephone Area Codes: 216 in the city; 440 and 330 in suburban areas
Postal Codes: 44101–44115; 44117, 44119–44122; 44126–44129; 44134, 44135, 44144
Once renowned for the 1972 Cuyahoga River fire and identified as part of the "Rust Belt," Cleveland is no stranger to disaster and hardship. However, in the 1990s the city once called the "Mis-take on the Lake" earned a well-deserved new nickname—the "Comeback City." As a result of a downtown rehabilitation program, Cleveland entered the twenty-first century as a proud host to the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Museum, the Great Lakes Science Center, the Gateway sports complex, comprised of Jacobs Field, home baseball park for the Cleveland Indians, and Gund Arena, home court for the men's and women's basketball teams, the Cleveland Cavaliers and Cleveland Rockers, and a new home football stadium for the new Cleveland Browns team.
Cleveland is located on the southern shore of Lake Erie, one of the five Great Lakes. The Cuyahoga River divides the city into an east side and west side. The area along the Cuyahoga River is known as The Flats. The Flats area was once the site of steel mills and other factories; when Cleveland's manufacturing sector suffered a downturn in the 1980s, The Flats area was redeveloped into an entertainment district with restaurants and nightclubs.
Three major interstate highways intersect in the downtown area: I-71 and I-77 run north-south connecting Cleveland with the Ohio cities of Columbus and Akron, respectively. I-90 runs east-west, linking Cleveland to Erie, Pennsylvania to the east and Toledo, Ohio, and Chicago, Illinois, to the west. I-480 connects the eastern and western suburbs on a route south of the city; I-271 runs east of the city on a north-south route; and I-490 connects I-90, I-71, and I-77 away from their downtown merges.
Bus and Railroad Service
Greyhound Bus Lines provides daily service into downtown Cleveland, and to many cities in the Greater Cleveland area. Amtrak passenger rail service to points east and west is provided by the train called the Lakeshore Limited. The Capital Limited train travels to Washington, D.C. via Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Cleveland Population Profile
Area: 200 sq km (77 sq mi)
Ethnic composition: 49% white; 47% black; 4% other
Nicknames: Mistake on the Lake (1960s and 1970s), Comeback City (1980s and 1990s)
Description: Includes Cuyahoga County (where Cleveland is located), neighboring Lorain, Medina, Summit, Portage, Geauga, and Lake Counties; and outlying Ashtabula County
Area: 9,360 sq km (3,613 sq mi)
World population rank 1: 192
Percentage of national population 2: 0.6%
Average yearly growth rate: 0.4%
Ethnic composition: 72% white; 25% black; 3% other
- The Cleveland metropolitan area's rank among the world's urban areas.
- The percent of the total US population living in the Cleveland metropolitan area.
The largest airports serving the area are Cleveland Hopkins International Airport (served by 14 air carriers providing 11.5 million passenger arrivals/departures in 1996), Burke Lakefront Airport (commuter air service provided 219,512 arrivals/departures in 1996), and the Cuyahoga County Airport (providing business and general aviation services). Continental Airlines has the largest number of flights with over 300 daily departures.
The Port of Cleveland, declared a foreign trade zone in 1990, is the largest overseas general cargo port on Lake Erie and is the third largest on the Great Lakes. Ships from the Atlantic Ocean enter the Great Lakes via the St. Lawrence Seaway, which opened in 1959. The port handles about 13 million metric tons (14 million tons) of cargo annually.
Many of Cleveland's major roads were laid out along the paths of dried out creek beds or trails used by displaced Native Americans. City streets branch out from Public Square. Cleveland's tallest buildings surround Public Square. The streets that run west from Public Square all feature large bridges over the Cuyahoga River. There are 13 bridges in The Flats area, directly to the west of Public Square. West of the Cuyahoga River lies the neighborhood known as Ohio City, incorporated into the city of Cleveland in 1852.
Bus and Commuter Rail Service
Within the area, Cleveland's Regional Transit Authority (RTA) serves 59 million passengers annually. Its rail line consists of 54 kilometers (34 miles) of track connecting the closest suburbs with Public Square in the center of the downtown area. In 1988, Cleveland became the first city in the United States to have commuter rail service from downtown to the airport when RTA connected Public Square to Hopkins Airport. There is a loop bus route (fare is 50 cents) serving the downtown area from 6 am to 6:30 pm. In 1996, commuter rail service was extended to the newly developed waterfront area. The RTA operates 102 bus lines, 72 of which reach downtown.
The Cuyahoga Valley Scenic Railroad operates a 90-minute round trip through the Cuyahoga National Recreation Area to the south of the city of Cleveland. Sightseeing cruises on the Cuyahoga River and Lake Erie are operated during the summer months, and dozens of marinas serve pleasure boaters of the area. A fleet of trolley cars known as Lolly the Trolley provide sightseeing tours.
In 1990, the population of the city of Cleveland was 505,616 (47 percent male, 53 percent female). The total population of the Cleveland Metropolitan Statistical Area is 2.9 million, making it the fourteenth-largest metropolitan area in the United States.
Cleveland has a rich ethnic mix, with a population representing 60 ethnic groups from all continents. The city has the largest mix of Eastern Europeans of any city in the United States and has the largest concentrations of Slovaks (Slovakia), Slovenes (Slovenia), and Hungarians (Hungary). There are also large German, Irish, Polish, Italian, Czech, Croat, Russian, Puerto Rican, and Ukrainian communities. In recent years, Asians have also settled in the area, primarily Asian Indians, Filipinos, Koreans, and Chinese.
More than 60 languages are spoken in Cleveland. In 1994, languages other than English spoken at home (by percentage of households) included Spanish or Spanish Creole (24.1 percent), German (11.7 percent), Italian (9.8 percent), Polish (7.9 percent), South Slavic (7.8 percent), other Slavic (seven percent), French or French Creole (6.4 percent), Hungarian (6.1 percent), Arabic (3.4 percent), Greek (2.7 percent), Chinese (2.3 percent), Indic (2.3 percent), Korean (1.2 percent), and Japanese (one percent).
An estimated 40 percent of the metropolitan area's regular worshippers attend Catholic churches. The following denominations have significant membership among Clevelanders: Catholic (Roman and Eastern Orthodox), 534,785 members; Southern Baptist, 117,282; American Baptist, 28,176; United Methodist, 33,607; United Church of Christ, 21,146; and Jewish, 50,500. There are also significant numbers of other Protestant denominations, Muslims, Buddhists, and Hindus.
Little Italy, located on the city's eastern border with Cleveland Heights, is a thriving Italian neighborhood that in recent years has become an arts center. On the near east side, just to the north of midtown, is a small Chinatown. On the northeast side is the Slavic Village, and to the east is Hough, a largely African American neighborhood that was the site of violent riots during the Civil Rights movements of the 1960s and 1970s.
The Van Sweringen brothers, real estate developers, purchased from a community of Shakers (the devout religious sect) a large tract of land about 16 kilometers (ten miles) east of Public Square. This land became the community of Shaker Heights, the first planned suburban community in the nation. To lure Cleveland's new and growing middle and upper classes into their community, the Van Sweringens bought a rail line and converted it to a commuter rail connecting their land with a downtown station they built. In 1996, the city received grants and loans of $22.6 million from the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development to help build 400 new homes and renovate 65 homes in the Central neighborhood, a residential, industrial sector just east of the downtown.
In 1994, the cost of housing in Cleveland was the second lowest among large cities in the country. In the greater Cleveland area, the average price for a single family home in 1994 was $104,400, compared to $161,600 nationally. Among the 18 largest U.S. metropolitan areas, Cleveland residents also had the lowest average mortgage payments.
In 1989, the Northeast Ohio Coalition for the Homeless was established to provide housing for the estimated 12,000 homeless people in the greater Cleveland area.
In 1682, King Charles II of England ceded a large tract of land west of Pennsylvania to the colony of Connecticut that became known as the Western Reserve. In 1796, Moses Cleaveland, an executive with the Connecticut Land Company, was sent to survey the reserve with the possibility of developing it. Cleaveland arrived at the mouth of the Cuyahoga River, where it empties into Lake Erie, and recognized that it would make an excellent site for a port. He laid out a plan for a small village, named the town after himself and returned to Connecticut, never again to set foot in the city that bore his name. (The "a" was dropped from the city name somewhere along the way. Popular stories hold that a newspaper writer either ran out of space or "a"s, thereby changing the name of the city permanently.)
The area turned out to be inhospitable, mainly because the Cuyahoga River was a nesting ground for mosquitoes and frequently flooded. By 1800, only seven people lived in the town Cleaveland had laid out. In 1803, Ohio became a state, the first state that never had been a colony. Growth was slow until the digging of the first stages of the Erie Canal in 1827, which opened the tiny frontier town to commerce. By 1850, the city had grown to 30 times its 1820 population. By 1860, it had become a well-established haven for new immigrants, and half its population that year was foreign born. During and following the Civil War (1861–65), Cleveland became a prosperous industrial city due to the discovery of large iron ore deposits and the establishment of the Standard Oil Company by John D. Rockefeller (1839–1937), soon to become the richest man in the world. Steel, shipping, and coal companies also flourished and created a class of rich merchants who built up the city with their wealth.
|City Fact Comparison|
|Population of urban area1||1,724,000||10,772,000||2,688,000||12,033,000|
|Date the city was founded||1796||AD 969||753 BC||723 BC|
|Daily costs to visit the city2|
|Hotel (single occupancy)||$86||$193||$172||$129|
|Meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner)||$40||$56||$59||$62|
|Incidentals (laundry, dry cleaning, etc.)||$24||$14||$15||$16|
|Total daily costs (hotel, meals, incidentals)||$128||$173||$246||$207|
|Number of newspapers serving the city||1||13||20||11|
|Largest newspaper||The Plan Dealer||Akhbar El Yom/Al Akhbar||La Repubblica||Renmin Ribao|
|Circulation of largest newspaper||3,82,933||1,159,450||754,930||3,000,000|
|Date largest newspaper was established||1842||1944||1976||1948|
|1United Nations population estimates for the year 2000.|
|2The maximum amount the U.S. Government reimburses its employees for business travel. The lodging portion of the allowance is based on the cost for a single room at a moderately-priced hotel. The meal portion is based on the costs of an average breakfast, lunch, and dinner including taxes, service charges, and customary tips. Incidental travel expenses include such things as laundry and dry cleaning.|
|3David Maddux, ed. Editor&Publisher International Year Book. New York: The Editor&Publisher Company, 1999.|
The Great Depression of the 1930s devastated the Cleveland economy, but World War II (1939–45) revived industry, and Cleveland companies recruited new workers to fill its expanded industrial capacity from among southern blacks and white Appalachians. The middle class, however, began moving out of the city into suburbs, as was the pattern nationally, and the inner city of Cleveland began to decline. By the 1960s, much of the city had sunk into poverty, and in 1966 the primarily black neighborhood of Hough erupted in riots that made national headlines. Three years later, the Cuyahoga River, saturated with a century of industrial pollutants, caught on fire. The image of a burning river, broadcast around the world, became an image that the city of Cleveland would find difficult to shake. Its reputation was further tarnished during the 1970s when it suffered a devastating fiscal crisis causing it to declare bankruptcy in 1976.
Beginning in the 1979, with the election of George Voinovich as mayor, Cleveland's business and civic leaders began revitalizing the downtown area, hoping to reverse the now decades-long population flight. In 1985 Standard Oil of Ohio built a new corporate headquarters building on Public Square. (The building is now known as the BP Building, after British Petroleum, the company that bought Standard Oil.). Other new buildings soon followed and The Flats area along the Cuyahoga River—the site of the river fire—was redeveloped as a district of restaurants and bars. When Michael R. White was elected mayor in 1989, the downtown rehabilitation continued. Notable is the construction of a downtown sports complex called Gateway, comprised of Jacobs Field, a baseball park for the Cleveland Indians, and Gund Arena, home court for the men's women's basketball teams, the Cleveland Cavaliers and Cleveland Rockers. Development along the lakeshore included the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Museum designed by I. M. Pei (1917–), the Great Lakes Science Center, and a new home football stadium for the new Cleveland Browns team in 1999.
The city's chief executive is the mayor, elected to four-year terms on a non-partisan ballot. Michael R. White (Democrat) was elected mayor in 1989, reelected in 1993 and again in 1997. The legislature is a City Council; its 21 members are also elected on a non-partisan ballot to four-year terms. (Until 1980, the mayoral and council terms were two years.)
In 1996, Cleveland had six police districts with 1,791 sworn officers; 26 fire stations with 957 uniformed fire fighters; and 18 Emergency Medical Services (EMS) ambulances with 224 uniformed employees. In 1994, there were 137 homicides; 751 rapes; 3,924 robberies; 2,947 aggravated assaults; 8,008 burglaries; 12,931 larcenies; 9,062 auto thefts; and 801 cases of arson.
Historically, Cleveland was a major industrial and manufacturing center. During the late 1970s and early 1980s, however, the local economy suffered, leaving Cleveland and many other midwestern cities, in an economic recession. During the 1980s, Cleveland lost 11.9 percent of its population when workers moved to take new jobs in the south and west. (During this period industrialized cities of the Midwest and Northeast were labeled the Rust Belt, and their counterparts in the South and Southwest, the Sun Belt.) Beginning in the late 1980s and continuing into the 1990s, however, Cleveland made the transition from an industrial economy to a services-based economy. In 1995, in fact, 28.8 percent of the workforce in the Cleveland metropolitan area was engaged in services, compared to 20.6 percent in manufacturing. Wholesale and retail trade employed 23.6 percent that year and 12.8 percent worked for local, state, and federal government.
In 1995, Cleveland was home to 95 companies with revenues exceeding $100 million. Among the largest employers in the area (1994) were the U.S. government (18,500); Ford Motor Company (10,896 employees); Catholic Diocese of Cleveland (10,000); Cleveland Clinic Foundation (9,900); Cleveland Board of Education (9,673); Cuyahoga County Government (9,232); MetroHealth System (8,328); City of Cleveland (8,226); University Hospitals (7,640); State of Ohio (7,630); LTV Steel Company (7,500); Riser Foods (6,500); First National Supermarkets (6,451); Centerior Energy (6,200); Goodyear Tire and Rubber (5,937); and Ameritech (5,309).
Cleveland's most vital natural resource is Lake Erie, the fourth-largest lake in the United States and the twelfth-largest lake in the world. It is 388 kilometers (241 miles) wide and contains 500 trillion liters (132 trillion gallons) of water. The cities that grew up around Lake Erie—Cleveland, Ohio; Detroit, Michigan; and Buffalo, New York—all spewed pollutants into Lake Erie from the early 1900s. In the late 1800s, vast deposits of salt were discovered beneath the lake, and the commercial enterprises continue to extract salt from mines about two-and-a-half kilometers (one-and-a-half miles) beneath the surface of Lake Erie. In 1970, pollution was so heavy that the governor of Ohio suspended fishing on Lake Erie because of mercury contamination of fish. Since then, environmental laws and downturn in industrial activity along the river have resulted in improved health of the river and Lake Erie ecosystems. In the 1990s, fishing was a favorite pastime. Fishers on Lake Erie catch as many fish as fishers on the other four Great Lakes combined.
The Cuyahoga River was one of the most polluted rivers in the country and actually burned in 1952, when a huge fire caused $1.5 million in damage, and again in 1969. The Cuyahoga River fire of June 22, 1969, elicited national headlines and created a national image of Cleveland as a polluted industrial wasteland.
Clevelanders employed in retail and wholesale trade number 261,500. In the 1980s and 1990s, two major malls—Tower City Center and The Galleria at Erieview—opened in the business district, combining to contain approximately 160 popular specialty shops and restaurants. In total, there are over 625 retail outlets in the downtown section of Cleveland. Another downtown indoor shopping area is The Arcade, built in downtown Cleveland in 1890. It was the first indoor shopping mall in the United States.
On the near west side of Cleveland, the Ohio City neighborhood is home to beautifully renovated Victorian houses, restaurants, coffee houses, and the historic West Side Market, an enclosed produce, meat, and bakery market. It is the largest covered farmer's market in the United States. Almost every suburban community in the Cleveland area has a shopping strip or indoor mall.
In the 1993–94 school year, Cleveland Public Schools enrolled 73,633 students, with a per-pupil expenditure of $6,017. Fifty percent of the system's students fail to graduate high school, but 51 percent of those who graduate go on to college. Students enrolled in suburban school systems demonstrate higher average graduation rates.
Cuyahoga County has 33 public school systems and 22 private schools. Public/private partnerships in education include Project SMART (School of Manufacturing and Automotive Related Technologies), which helps students learn real-world skills for existing industrial jobs. It is administered by the Cleveland Public Schools, Cleveland State University, and the non-profit group Cleveland Education Partners.
The 22 universities and colleges (five public, 17 private) in greater Cleveland include Cleveland State University, Case Western Reserve University, John Carroll University, and Oberlin College. Enrollment at colleges and universities in the metropolitan area is 143,000.
13. Health Care
Cleveland is home to some of the finest medical facilities in the country, including the Cleveland Clinic (which pioneered open heart surgery and organ transplants), University Hospitals (affiliated with Case Western Reserve University), St. Vincent Charity Hospital (pioneered development of heart-lung machines), and Metropolitan General Hospital (specializing in burn treatment). The health care industry employs 125,000 workers (11 percent of the workforce) and generates $9 billion for the local economy. The Cleveland area has 9,000 physicians and 22,000 professional health care workers.
The city of Cleveland's Department of Public Health employs 320 people and has an operating budget of $24 million. In 1995, the department provided flu shots to 2,500 senior citizens, tested 5,000 adults for HIV/AIDS, screened 42,855 children for lead poisoning, and increased the number of patients served at health centers from 23,728 to 36,938. The infant mortality rate in inner-city neighborhoods served by the Department was 16.3 per 1,000 live births in 1993.
The Cleveland Designated Market Area (CDMA) comprises 1.47 million households, the fourteenth-largest media market in the U.S. (CDMA is defined as all counties in which Cleveland television stations receive a majority of total viewing hours.) Cleveland has network affiliate television broadcasters for ABC, CBS, NBC, and Fox. There are over 100 media companies in the area, and 25 am and 34 FM radio stations, including six college radio stations. The top ten radio stations reach an average adult audience of 344,197 daily. The Plain Dealer, Cleveland's principal daily newspaper and Ohio's largest daily newspaper, has a circulation of 1,002,892. Cleveland Magazine and Northern Ohio Live, regional arts and entertainment magazines, have a combined circulation of 241,000; a weekly newspaper reporting on the business community is Crain's Cleveland Business.
Cleveland has professional major league baseball (the Indians), men's basketball (the Cavaliers), women's basketball (the Rockers), hockey (the Lumberjacks), and indoor soccer (the Crunch) teams. Cleveland's National Football League team, the Browns, was relocated in 1996 to Baltimore, Maryland, where the name was changed to the Ravens. Cleveland kept the rights to their NFL team name (Browns), and a new Browns team began playing in Cleveland in 1999.
The Indians won the World Series in 1920 and 1948. In 1995 and 1997, the Indians won the American League pennant, but lost in the World Series to the Atlanta Braves (1995) and the Florida Marlins (1997).
Gund Arena, home to professional men's and women's basketball, professional hockey, and the site of numerous concerts and special events, opened in August 1994; it is one of the first buildings designed to comply with the Americans with Disabilities Act, with 200 seats for the disabled. There are 3,300 parking places at the arena, more than 10,000 parking spaces within a ten-minute walk.
About one hour west of Cleveland in Sandusky lies Cedar Point amusement park. To the southeast, in Aurora, Six Flags Ohio (formerly Geauga Lake) amusement park and Sea World of Ohio are popular summer attractions.
The Cleveland Metroparks system, known as "The Emerald Necklace," consists of 19,000 acres of parks that surround the city. The system includes 12 separate reservations and the Cleveland Metroparks Zoo, all within 15 minutes of downtown. Parks within the city of Cleveland itself have 163 tennis courts, 41 swimming pools, and 156 baseball diamonds. There are six separate park facilities on the shore of Lake Erie in the greater Cleveland area. In the city itself, the largest is Edgewater Park, which has 274 meters (900 feet) of beach. There are over 200 public and private golf courses and 35 bike trails in the area.
The 32,000-acre Cuyahoga National Recreation Area covers 35 kilometers (22 miles) of the Cuyahoga River was established in 1974, and features hiking and nature programs. About 32 kilometers (20 miles) east of the city is The Holden Arboretum, one of the world's largest museums of trees and shrubs.
17. Performing Arts
Cleveland is host to a thriving music, theater, and film community. The Cleveland Orchestra (TCO), founded in 1918, is considered one of the finest orchestras in the world. TCO performs during the concert season at Severance Hall, which opened in 1931, and during the summer at Blossom Music Center. The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Museum, designed by I. M. Pei (1917–), opened on the lakeshore in downtown in 1994. The Polka Hall of Fame, located in Euclid, celebrates Polka Month (November) each year with an induction ceremony and a weekend-long program of concerts and events. The Cleveland Play House, the oldest repertory theater in the United States, operates three stages in a large theater complex. Karamu (Swahili for "a place of joyful gathering") House is the oldest U.S. theater producing plays written by African Americans. In the downtown business district, the Playhouse Square area includes four theaters: the Ohio, home to the Great Lakes Theatre Festival; the State, home to Cleveland Opera and Cleveland Ballet; the Palace, home to large touring Broadway shows; and the Allen. There are 175 movie theaters in the greater Cleveland area. The Cleveland International Film Festival, held each spring, is nationally renowned.
The Cleveland Public Library is the second largest municipal library in the United States. It was the first library in the country to allow users to take the books off the shelves themselves (without asking a librarian for help). In 1997, the main branch of the Cleveland Public Library opened the Louis Stokes Wing, a 48,865-square-meter (526,000-square-foot) building.
The 29-branch Cuyahoga County Public Library has the seventh-highest circulation rate in the United States. The Cleveland Area Metropolitan Library System (CAMLS) is a consortium of 77 public, academic, hospital, corporate, and school libraries.
Downtown Cleveland features the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Museum; the Great Lakes Science Center and Cleveland Clinic Omnimax Theatre; the William G. Mather Museum, a 188-meter (618-foot) ore freighter; and the USS Cod, a World War II submarine.
University Circle is a 500-acre area on Cleveland's east side, six kilometers (four miles) east of Public Square. A Loop Bus provides transportation between the points of interest in University Circle, including Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland Children's Museum, Cleveland Health Museum, Cleveland Institute of Art, Cleveland Institute of Music, the Cleveland Museum of Art, Severance Hall (home of the Cleveland Orchestra), the Cleveland Museum of Natural History, the Dittrick Museum of Medical History, the Temple Museum, Western Reserve Historical Society, and Crawford Auto-Aviation Museum.
The Cleveland Museum of Art holds one of the world's finest collections, consisting of more than 30,000 works produced over 5,000 years of world history. Founded in 1916, the collection is housed in a beaux-arts building designed by the Cleveland architectural firm of Hubbell and Benes and is situated on a 15-acre public park designed by the renowned Olmsted Brothers firm. Highlights of the museum's collection include Van Gogh's Poplars at Saint-Remy, Picasso's La Vie and Harlequin with Violin, Michaelangelo's The Crucifixion of St. Anthony and Degas' The Dancers. The Cleveland Center for Contemporary Art is housed in a former Sears & Roebuck store adjacent to the Cleveland Play House.
South of Cleveland in Canton, Ohio, is the Pro Football Hall of Fame, where memorabilia of professional football and its players is displayed. Between Cleveland and Akron, Hale Farm and Village depicts nineteenth-century rural life in Northeast Ohio.
In 1995, Cleveland had 12,621 hotel rooms and attracted some seven million domestic visitors. Five-hundred-thousand visitors toured the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Museum, one of the city's largest national and international draws since its opening in 1994. For conventions, the downtown offers the Cleveland Convention Center, the Clarion Hotel and Conference Center, and the I-X Center.
St. Patrick's Day Parade
Buzzard Day, Cleveland Metroparks Hinckley Reservation, celebrating annual migration of the turkey vulture
Cleveland International Film Festival
Tri-C Jazz Fest, Cuyahoga County Community College
Revco-Cleveland Marathon and 10-K race
I-X Indoor Amusement Park with ten-story ferris wheel
Parade the Circle Celebration, University Circle, first Saturday in June
Summer Art Walk, Little Italy
Cleveland Orchestra Concert on Public Square
Feast of the Assumption, Little Italy
Twins Day Festival, Twinsburg, southwest of Cleveland
National Air Show, Burke Lakefront Airport
Sweetest Day (October 10) was first celebrated in Cleveland
Columbus Day Parade
Polka Festival Weekend (Thanksgiving Weekend) and Polka Hall of Fame induction
21. Famous Citizens
Famous citizens born in the Cleveland area include:
Charles Brush (1849–1929), inventor of the arc light.
Hart Crane (1899–1932), modernist lyrical poet.
Jesse Owens (1913–80), Olympic athlete, set a world record for the 100-yard dash when he was a senior at East Tech High.
Adella Prentiss Hughes (1869–1950), founder and first manager of the Cleveland Orchestra.
Bob Hope (b. 1903), actor and vaudevillian.
Jerry Siegel and Joe Schuster, creators of Superman, the comic book hero, while students at Glenville High in 1933.
Dorothy Fuldheim (1893–1989), the first woman television news anchor, beginning in 1947.
Alan Freed (1922–65), radio disc jockey who coined the term "rock and roll".
Paul Brown (1908–91), coach of Cleveland Browns football team.
Carl B. Stokes (1927–96), grandson of a slave who defeated Seth Taft, grandson of President William H. Taft, in the November 13, 1967, election to become the first black mayor of a major U.S. city.
Famous citizens who resided in Cleveland include:
John D. Rockefeller (b. New York, 1839–1937), founder of Standard Oil of Ohio, richest man in the world and philanthropist.
George Szell (b. Hungary, 1897–1970), internationally renowned conductor and music director of the Cleveland Orchestra.
Elliot Ness (1903–57), famed crime fighter, stationed in Cleveland 1934–1942.
City of Cleveland Home Page. [Online] Available http://www.cleveland.oh.us (accessed on January 15, 2000).
Crain's Cleveland Business. [Online] Available www.crainscleveland.com (accessed on January 15, 2000).
Homepage maintained by local newspaper and television station. [Online] Available www.cleveland.com (accessed on January 15, 2000).
601 Lakeside Avenue
Cleveland, OH 44114
Community Relations Board
601 Lakeside Avenue Suite 202
Cleveland, OH 44114
Tourist and Convention Bureaus
Convention and Visitors Bureau of Greater Cleveland
50 Public Square, Suite 3100
Cleveland, Ohio 44113
Greater Cleveland Growth Association
200 Tower City Center, 50 Public Square
Cleveland, Ohio 44113
The New Cleveland Campaign
1809 East Ninth Street, Suite 1020
Cleveland, Ohio 44113
Call and Post (African American newspaper)
1949 East 105th St.
Cleveland, OH 44115
1422 Euclid Avenue, Suite 730
Cleveland, Ohio 44115
Crain's Cleveland Business
700 West St. Clair Ave., Suite 310
Cleveland, OH 44113–1230
Northern Ohio Live
11320 Juniper Road
Cleveland, Ohio 44106
Nueves Horizontes magazine
(serving the Hispanic community)
2012 West 25th Street, Suite 717
Cleveland, Ohio 44113
The Plain Dealer
1801 Superior Avenue
Cleveland, Ohio 44114
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Grabowski, John J. Sports in Cleveland: An Illustrated History. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1992.
Johnston, Christopher. ed. Best Things in Life: 236 Favorite Things about Cleveland (by Clevelanders). Cleveland: Gray & Co., 1994.
Peacock, Nancy. Kidding Around Cleveland: A Fun-filled, Fact-Packed Travel and Activity Book. Sante Fe, New Mexico: J. Muir Publications, 1997.
Springstubb, Tricia. Cleveland for Kids. Cleveland: The Cleveland Arts Consortium, 1993.
Van Tassel, David D., and John J. Grabowski, ed. The Dictionary of Cleveland Biography. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1996.
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Stoffel, Jennifer, and Stephen Phillips. Cleveland Discovery Guide: Greater Cleveland's Best Family Recreation. Cleveland: Gray & Co., 1994.
Wickham, Gertrude Van Rensselaer. The Pioneer Families of Cleveland 1796–1840. Salem, Massachusetts: Higginson Book Co., 1993.
Cleveland Neighborhood Development Corporation. Cleveland Neighborhoods: Weaving the Fabric of the City. Cleveland, OH: The Corporation, [199–?]. One 15-minute videocassette.
"Cleveland." Junior Worldmark Encyclopedia of World Cities. . Encyclopedia.com. (January 17, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/international/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/cleveland
"Cleveland." Junior Worldmark Encyclopedia of World Cities. . Retrieved January 17, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/international/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/cleveland
Major Industries and Commercial Activity
Diversified manufacturing is a primary economic sector, resting on a traditional base of heavy industry in particular. Consistent with a nationwide trend, the services industry—transportation, health, insurance, retailing, utilities, commercial banking, and finance—is emerging as a dominant sector. Cleveland serves as headquarters to 11 companies on the Fortune 500 list, both industrial and non-industrial. These firms are, in order of their Fortune 500 rank: National City Corp., Eaton Corp., Parker Hannifin Corp., Sherwin-Williams Co., KeyCorp, Nacco Industries, American Greetings Corp., Ferro Corp., Medical Mutual of Ohio, Applied Industries Technologies, and Lincoln Electric Holdings. Cleveland is also home to nearly 150 international companies from 25 different countries.
Manufacturing has traditionally been the primary industry of northeast Ohio. It remains so today, although the local economy has suffered along with the rest of the nation during the recession of the late 1990s and early 2000s. Dubbed "Polymer Valley," the metropolitan Cleveland area has the largest concentration of polymer companies in the United States; for example, Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co., the world's largest tire company, is headquartered in nearby Akron. The area's other manufacturing companies are engaged in such areas as the automotive industry, fabricated metals, electrical/electronic equipment, and instruments and controls.
Supported by the manufacturing industry is the science and engineering field. More than 168 engineering companies are located in the Cleveland metro area. These firms engage in civil engineering, construction, and the burgeoning field of information technology, which employs approximately 73,500 area workers. Among the local institutions of science and engineering are the Cleveland Engineering Society, the Cleveland Society of Professional Engineers, the Great Lakes Science Center, the NASA John H. Glenn Research Center, ASM (American Society for Metals) International, and the engineering schools of Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland State University, and the University of Akron.
Cleveland's research base for the biotechnology and biomedical industry has tripled in recent years, from $50 million to $150 million. More than 100 biotechnology firms are located in northeast Ohio, along with more than 100 research laboratories. The Cleveland Clinic Foundation has the nation's largest hospital-based department of biomedical engineering. Area colleges offer training in biomedical or bioscience technology; among them are Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland State University, Kent State University, Lakeland Community College, and the University of Akron.
Items and goods produced: automobile parts, bolts and nuts, machine tools, paints and lacquers, rubber and oil products, chemicals, rayon, foundry and machine shop products, electrical machinery and appliances, men's and women's clothing, iron and steel
Incentive Programs—New and Existing Businesses
The Greater Cleveland Partnership (GCP) was formed in 2003 through the merger of the Greater Cleveland Roundtable, the Greater Cleveland Growth Association, and Cleveland Tomorrow. GCP provides access to local and state business incentives and job training programs. It can link businesses with a variety of assistance including international trade, business financing, tax credits and abatement programs, technology transfer, labor force recruitment, and training and market data. GCP is also affiliated with Growth Capital Corp., which provides financing assistance to businesses in northeast Ohio to facilitate business expansion, new facility construction, and equipment purchases. Neighborhood Progress Inc. is a non-profit organization that offers up to $5 million per year in low-interest funds to develop Cleveland's neighborhoods.
The state of Ohio offers a number of incentives designed to encourage new companies and retain existing businesses. Tax credit programs include those for job creation, machinery and equipment investment, export, research and development franchise, and technology investment. Ohio also offers a property tax abatement for areas identified as enterprise zones, and sales tax exemptions for research and development.
Job training programs
Ohio Industrial Training Program (OITP) is a state program that can provide assistance to a business through a competitive grant award. Funds are used to reimburse the incurred eligible training costs. OITP may assist a company up to a maximum of one-half of the project's total eligible training costs. The Ohio Job Training Tax Credit is offered to businesses engaged in manufacturing and other specified service industries. Career Service Centers offer customized training programs designed to meet the needs of a specific business, as well as other ongoing skill training for current or new employees; these Career Service Centers are operated by Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland Institute of Art, Cleveland State University, Cuyahoga Community College, and David N. Myers College.
In March 2004 Site Selection magazine ranked the Cleveland area, with 96 projects, the 10th in the nation for number of new and expanded corporate facility projects. Among these corporate projects were the expansion of Minolta's Cleveland facility, which added 25,000 square feet; the $4.5 million expansion of U.S. Cotton's facility; and a new, 5,000-square-foot distribution center for Netflix Inc.
The Milton & Tamar Maltz Jewish Heritage Museum is scheduled to open in the fall of 2005. The $13.5 million, 24,000-square-foot facility will house displays, interactive exhibits, and a 60-seat theater. Groundbreaking will begin in September 2005 on a six-year, $258-million expansion and renovation of the Cleveland Museum of Art. The Western Reserve Historical Society will spend $30 million to create an additional 100,000 square feet of space to house its car and plane collection. Euclid Avenue is undergoing a $168 million renovation between the downtown Public Square and the Playhouse Square Center; construction is scheduled for completion in 2007.
Economic Development Information: Greater Cleveland Partnership, Tower City Center, Ste. 200, 50 Public Sq., Cleveland, OH 44113; telephone (216)621-3300; toll-free (888)304-GROW; fax (216)621-4617; email firstname.lastname@example.org
Cleveland is at the center of the nation's largest concentration of industrial and consumer markets. The city of Cleveland is home to more than 100 offices of motor freight carrier companies and there are many others located throughout the metropolitan area. Three railroads—Norfolk Southern, CSX Transportation, Wheeling & Lake Erie Railroad—serve the region. More than 1,200 miles of highways connect the region with other U.S. markets, and the World Trade Center Cleveland assists companies with international business ventures. Cleveland-Hopkins International Airport is served by 11 cargo-only carriers.
The Port of Cleveland, the largest overseas general cargo port on Lake Erie and third largest port on the Great Lakes, serves more than 50 countries, shipping cargo to and receiving cargo from 120 ports around the world. The Port is also the site of Foreign Trade Zone #40, an area where foreign goods bound for international destinations can be temporarily stored without incurring an import duty. Every service for shippers—banking, insurance, customs, stevedoring, and storage—is available from experienced firms. Each year the port handles 13 to 15 million tons of cargo, primarily semi-finished products, machinery, and such bulk cargo as iron ore, stone, cement, and salt. The port was visited by 898 ships in 2003.
Labor Force and Employment Outlook
The following is a summary of data regarding the Cleveland metropolitan area labor force, 2004 annual average.
Size of nonagricultural labor force: 1,073,400
Number of workers employed in . . .
construction and mining: 44,600
trade, transportation and utilities: 200,100
financial activities: 81,100
professional and business services: 132,800
educational and health services: 164,700
leisure and hospitality: 92,400
other services: 44,200
Average hourly earnings of production workers employed in manufacturing: $18.64
Unemployment rate: 6.3% (March 2005)
|Largest metropolitan area employers||Number of employees|
|Ford Motor Co.||11,800|
|Catholic Diocese of Cleveland||10,000|
|Board of County Commissioners||9,963|
|Cleveland Clinic Foundation||9,445|
|Cleveland Municipal School District||8,520|
|Charter One Bank||7,057|
|The MetroHealth System||5,300|
|Cole Vision Corp.||5,168|
Cost of Living
Cleveland's taxes are moderately high. According to the strategic plan presented by the Greater Cleveland Partnership in September 2004, "we are strangling ourselves with high taxes both on individuals and businesses." The report goes on to say that "local and state tax rates place many Cleveland suburbs among the highest-taxed communities in the country."
The following is a summary of data regarding several key cost of living factors in the Cleveland area.
2004 (3rd Quarter) ACCRA Average House Price: $253,363
2004 (3rd Quarter) ACCRA Cost of Living Index: 103.4 (U.S. average = 100.0)
State income tax rate: Ranges from 0.691% to 6.980%
State sales tax rate: 7.0% (food and prescription drugs are exempt)
Local income tax rate: 2.0%
Local sales tax rate: 7.5%
Property tax rate: basic rate ranges from 96.5 to 183.40 mills per $1,000 of assessed value
Economic Information: Greater Cleveland Partnership, Tower City Center, Ste. 200, 50 Public Sq., Cleveland, OH 44113; telephone (216)621-3300; toll-free (888)304-GROW; fax (216)621-4617; email email@example.com
"Cleveland: Economy." Cities of the United States. . Encyclopedia.com. (January 17, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/cleveland-economy
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One of Cleveland's most popular attractions is the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Museum, the world's only facility dedicated to the living heritage of rock and roll music. Situated on the shores of Lake Erie, the museum houses six floors of costumes, interactive exhibits, and original films, along with the most extensive collection of rock and roll artifacts and memorabilia in the world. Adjacent to the Rock and Roll Hall on North Coast Harbor is the Great Lakes Science Center. Visitors can explore the wonders of science, the environment, and technology via more than 400 interactive exhibits. Located inside the center is the six-story OMNIMAX theater, with supersized images and digital sound that allows viewers to feel as though they were actually in the film.
North America's largest collection of primate species is housed at the Cleveland Metroparks Zoo and RainForest, located five miles south of downtown. The zoo has more than 3,300 animals from around the world, including 84 endangered species, and occupies 168 rolling, wooded acres. The two-acre RainForest is home to more than 600 animals and 10,000 plants from the jungles of the world, and features a 25-foot waterfall and simulated tropical storm.
The NASA John H. Glenn Research Center is the only NASA facility north of the Mason-Dixon line. Named after the Ohio astronaut, it presents programs on space exploration, aircraft propulsion, satellites, and alternative energy sources. Two of Cleveland's best-known monuments are the Garfield Monument in Lakeview Cemetery and the National Shrine of Our Lady of Lourdes, which resembles the original shrine in France and is located 10 miles east of the city.
Seasonal amusement parks located in Greater Cleveland Geauga Lake and Cedar Point, known for its world-record-breaking collection of roller coasters and rides, (located 63 miles from Cleveland, in Sandusky, Ohio). Sandusky is also home to Kalahari Resort, the largest indoor waterpark in Ohio.
Arts and Culture
University Circle, located four miles east of downtown, boasts the largest concentration of cultural institutions and museums in the country. Within one square mile, visitors will find more than 40 non-profit institutions including the Cleveland Museum of Art, Cleveland Museum of Natural History, Cleveland Botanical Garden, Children's Museum of Cleveland, HealthSpace Cleveland, Crawford Auto-Aviation Museum, and Museum of Contemporary Art Cleveland (MOCA), which, in honor of its 35th anniversary, changed its name from the Cleveland Center for Contemporary Art in 2003.
Museums located outside of University Circle include the Hungarian Heritage Society, the Shaker Historical Society and Museum, the Steamship William G. Mather Museum, and the Dunham Tavern Museum, the oldest Cleveland museum building on its original site. The Milton & Tamar Maltz Museum of Jewish Heritage is scheduled to open in the fall of 2005.
The Cleveland Orchestra, considered one of the nation's top orchestras, plays a season of concerts at Severance Hall from September to May; the summer season is scheduled at the open-air Blossom Music Center from June to August. Blossom also hosts opera, classical, pop, jazz, rock, and folk concerts during the summer months. The Cleveland Chamber Music Society and the Cleveland Chamber Symphony offer a schedule of chamber music each year. The Cleveland Institute of Music presents hundreds of concerts by faculty, students, and visiting artists, and the Cleveland Pops Orchestra performs music from motion pictures and Broadway shows. The internationally acclaimed Cleveland Quartet gives performances throughout the world. The nation added its eighth House of Blues with the 2004 opening of Cleveland's concert club.
Two dance companies perform in Cleveland: Dance Cleveland and North Coast Ballet Theatre. Cleveland's three opera companies, Opera Cleveland at the State Theater, Lyric Opera, and Cleveland Institute of Music's Opera Theater, stage operatic presentations.
Cleveland supports a number of theater companies. Cleveland Play House, the country's first professional resident company, presents a season of classical drama and new works. Playhouse Square Center, with its five beautifully restored circa 1920 theaters, is the nation's second largest performing arts center. The Ohio Theatre is home to the Great Lakes Theater Festival; the others host touring Broadway shows, musicals, concerts, opera, and ballets. Karamu House, from the Swahili for "a center of enjoyment, a place to be entertained," has earned a national reputation as a center of African American culture.
Festivals and Holidays
Cleveland schedules a full calendar of annual events. Each January, Cleveland organizes a Martin Luther King Jr. celebration, followed two months later by a festive St. Patrick's Day Parade through downtown. The Cleveland International Film Festival also takes place in March with nearly than 200 film screenings. The state's largest environmental event is EarthFest, held in April at the Cleveland Metroparks Zoo. The Cleveland Botanical Garden Flower Show, the largest outdoor flower show in North America, takes place in May at the Cleveland Botanical Gardens.
June brings the Parade the Circle Celebration, featuring an art parade and free admission to University Circle facilities. Visitors can join in Cleveland's annual July birthday bash in the Flats with riverfront festivities and performances as well as an amazing fireworks and laser light show. Samples of savory ribs, live entertainment, and family fun are on the menu at the New Cleveland Rib Burnoff in July. Cleveland showcases its diversity at summer festivities such as the Irish Cultural Festival, Puerto Rican Friendly Days, the Annual Polish Heritage Festival, and the Cleveland Pride Parade & Festival, celebrating the lesbian-gay-bi-transsexual community.
The week-long Cuyoga County Fair in August features rides, exhibits, and shows. An unforgettable Labor Day weekend event is the Cleveland National Air Show at Burke Lakefront Airport. Art meets technology at the Ingenuity Festival, taking place at various downtown locations in early September; running nearly simultaneously with this event is Taste of Cleveland, at which food from more than 30 local restaurants can be sampled. The Johnny Appleseed Festival at Mapleside Farms, and the Midwest Oktoberfest are among the area's many fall festivals. The Christmas season marks its start with the annual Holiday Lighting ceremony on downtown's Public Square the day after Thanksgiving.
Sports for the Spectator
Cleveland is a major-league sports city with major-league sports facilities. Gund Arena hosts NBA Cleveland Cavaliers basketball, the WNBA Cleveland Rockers basketball, and the American Hockey League's Cleveland Barons, as well as more than 200 family events and concerts each year. State-ofthe-art Jacobs Field is home to Major League Baseball's Cleveland Indians. The Cleveland Browns professional football team, named for their first coach, the legendary Paul Brown, is part of the National Football League's American Conference and play home games at the lakefront Cleveland Browns Stadium. Indoor soccer action is brought to fans by the Cleveland Force at the Cleveland State University Convocation Center. The Cleveland Junior Lumberjacks play youth hockey at the Metroplex. The Champ Car Grand Prix of Cleveland is held over three June days at the Burke Lakefront Airport. Thistledown Race Track offers thoroughbred racing and Northfield Park schedules harness races.
Sports for the Participant
Cleveland's Metroparks system, consisting of 20,000 acres in 15 parks that surround the city's core, represents one of the nation's largest concentrations of park land per capita. Facilities are available for hiking, cycling, tennis, swimming, golf, boating, and horseback riding. Winter activities include cross-country skiing, tobogganing, ice skating, and ice fishing. Downhill skiing is available at three nearby resorts. Greater Cleveland encompasses more than 70 public and private golf courses. One hundred miles of Lake Erie shoreline, as well as inland lakes, reservoirs, rivers, and streams, make fishing a favorite pastime; the annual catch in Lake Erie equals that of the other four Great Lakes combined. Cuyahoga Valley National Park, Cleveland Lakefront State Park, Huntington Beach, and Mentor Headlands State Park are popular summer spots for water sports enthusiasts. The Cleveland Marathon and 10K is held downtown in May.
Shopping and Dining
More than 600 retail businesses are located in downtown Cleveland. The elegant Tower City Center offers shopping and dining at more than 100 establishments. ETON, situated on Chagrin Boulevard, houses retail and dining establishments amid fountains, gardens, and sculptures, and recently underwent a $50 million expansion and renovation. Just west of downtown Cleveland is the new Crocker Park, a $450 million shopping center that encompasses 12 city blocks in Westlake. Unique shopping opportunities can be found throughout the city, such as: Antique Row on Lorain Avenue which attracts antique buyers; the Arcade, a nineteenth-century marketplace containing more than 100 shops and restaurants; and West Side Market in nearby Ohio City which sells fresh fish and meats, vegetables and fruits, baked goods, cheeses, and ethnic foods.
Visitor Information: Convention & Visitors Bureau of Greater Cleveland, 3100 Terminal Tower, 50 Public Sq., Cleveland, OH 44113; telephone (216)621-4110; toll-free 800-321-1001; fax (216)623-4499; email firstname.lastname@example.org
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Cleveland: Education and Research
Cleveland: Education and Research
Elementary and Secondary Schools
The Cleveland Municipal School District, administered by a seven-member nonpartisan board that appoints a superintendent, enrolls the largest student population of any Ohio school system. It is one of 31 districts in Cuyahoga County. More than 300 businesses and other organizations have joined in a partnership with the city's 121 schools; one of these is NASA John H. Glenn Research Center.
Cleveland's schools experienced academic, financial, and structural crises in the mid-2000s. In 2004 the high school graduation rate was only 40.8 percent, while only 11.3 percent of residents achieved a college degree. Worsening the situation, the Cleveland Municipal School District had a $36 million operating deficit; in order to rectify the shortfall, the board of education planned to close a number of schools and lay-off part of the workforce for the 2005–2006 school year. In June 2002, prompted by the collapse of a school gym roof, a $1.5 billion Facilities Plan was approved to replace or renovate each school in the district within 10-12 years.
The following is a summary of data regarding Cleveland public schools as of the 2004–2005 school year.
Total enrollment: 73,943
Number of facilities
elementary schools: 59
K–8 schools: 31
middle schools: 13
senior high schools: 19
Student/teacher ratio: 16.5:1
Teacher salaries average: $45,156
Funding per pupil: $8,950
More than 30 parochial and private schools offer a range of educational alternatives at the pre-school, kindergarten, elementary, and secondary levels in the Cleveland metropolitan area. Among them is the University School, a more than 100-year-old kindergarten-through twelfth-grade independent day school for boys.
Public Schools Information: Cleveland Municipal School District, 1380 E. 6th St., Cleveland, OH 44114; telephone (216)574-8000; email email@example.com
Colleges and Universities
Cleveland State University (CSU), predominantly a commuter institution, enrolls more than 16,500 students. The university grants undergraduate and graduate degrees in 60 fields, including doctoral programs in regulatory biology, chemistry, engineering, urban studies, and urban education. CSU's Cleveland-Marshall College of Law is the largest law school in Ohio. Case Western Reserve University offers undergraduate, graduate, and professional education in 60 areas of study such as medicine, dentistry, nursing, law, management, and applied social sciences; it is a major research institution ranking among the best in undergraduate engineering and business programs. Cleveland College of Jewish Studies is one of only five colleges in North America to be accredited as an institution of higher Jewish learning.
The Cleveland Institute of Art offers a five-year bachelor of fine arts program. The Cleveland Institute of Music grants baccalaureate, master's, and doctoral degrees in various music fields in conjunction with Case Western Reserve University, which provides the academic curriculum. Other colleges in Cleveland include David N. Myers University, formerly known as Dyke College, and Cuyahoga Community College (CCC), which is the city's largest college and the fourth largest in the state. Offering career education leading to an associate degree and enrolling more than 22,000 students at its Metropolitan, Eastern, and Western campuses, CCC's programs include allied health, business technologies, engineering technologies, early childhood education, law enforcement, and mental health.
Among the colleges and universities enrolling more than 1,000 students and located in the surrounding area or within commuting distance of Cleveland are Baldwin-Wallace College, John Carroll University, Kent State University, Lakeland Community College, Lorain County Community College, Oberlin College, University of Akron, and Ursuline College, which is the oldest Catholic women's college in the nation.
Libraries and Research Centers
Approximately 90 libraries are operated in Cleveland by a diverse range of public agencies, private corporations, and other organizations. The Cleveland Public Library maintains a main facility (recently restored), 28 branches, a Library for the Blind and Physically Handicapped, and a Public Administration Library in City Hall. The Cleveland Public Library, said to be the nation's second largest municipal library, has more than 9 million items that include more than 3 million volumes, more than 6,000 current periodical titles, 4 million microforms, 1 million photographs, 137,000 sound recordings, 173,000 maps, 97,000 videos and DVDs, as well as computer software and CD-ROMS. The library is a depository for federal, state, international, local, and United Nations documents. The Library for the Blind and Physically Handicapped offers 11,000 Braille titles, 150,000 cassettes, and 48,000 discs; the library also includes material on visual and physical disabilities in their collection.
In 2003 the Ohio Center for the Book was dedicated at the main Cleveland Public Library, enabling it to serve the entire state. That year the library system became the first in the nation to offer eBooks to patrons. The Langston Hughes branch was the recipient of an Ohio Historical Marker in December 2003 in honor of its namesake, the Cleveland poet James Mercer Langston Hughes.
The Cuyahoga County Public Library, which houses nearly 3 million books, operates four large regional libraries, 22 branch libraries, and two mini libraries in communities throughout the county. The Western Reserve Historical Society, the Cleveland Museum of Art, and the Cleveland Museum of Natural History maintain reference libraries. As a major research institution, Case Western Reserve University maintains holdings of more than 1.5 million books, nearly 14,000 periodical subscriptions, and approximately 35 special collections in such fields as literature, history, philosophy, urban studies, psychology, and the sciences; six departmental libraries are also located on campus. The Cleveland Health Sciences Library is operated by Case Western Reserve University and the Cleveland Medical Library Association. Other colleges and universities, as well as several corporations, hospitals, and religious organizations, maintain libraries in the city.
More than 400 public and private research centers are based in the Cleveland metropolitan area. Among them are the John H. Glenn Research Center of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Cleveland Clinic Educational Foundation, and the Cleveland Psychoanalytic Institute. In 2003 Case Western Reserve University was awarded an $18 million grant to create the Wright Center of Innovation to focus on fuel cell research. University Hospitals represents the largest concentration of biomedical research in Ohio. Greater Cleveland's medical community as a whole receives more than $100 million in research dollars from the National Institutes of Health each year, making Cleveland a leading center nationwide for biomedical research and spending.
Public Library Information: Cleveland Public Library, 325 Superior Ave. NE, Cleveland, OH 44114-1271; telephone (216)623-2800; fax (216)623-7015; email firstname.lastname@example.org
"Cleveland: Education and Research." Cities of the United States. . Encyclopedia.com. (January 17, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/cleveland-education-and-research
"Cleveland: Education and Research." Cities of the United States. . Retrieved January 17, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/cleveland-education-and-research
Lake Erie Port Attracts Development
U.S. General Moses Cleaveland was sent in 1796 by the Connecticut Land Company to survey the Western Reserve, a one-half million acre tract of land in northeastern Ohio, which was at that time called "New Connecticut." General Cleaveland platted a townsite on Lake Erie at the mouth of the Cuyahoga River, named from a Native American term for crooked river because of the unusual U shape that causes it to flow both north and south. Cleaveland copied the New England style of town square layout. The settlement was abandoned, however, when dysentery and insects drove Cleaveland and his company back to New England. The eventual taming of the Western Reserve wilderness has been credited to Lorenzo Carter, who arrived at General Cleaveland's original townsite in 1799. Carter, a man of impressive ability and stature, brought stability to the primitive setting and established friendly relations with the Native Americans in the area. The revived settlement was named for its initial founder; the current spelling of the name can be traced to a newspaper compositor who dropped the first "a" from Cleaveland in order to fit the name on the newspaper masthead. Cleveland's geographic position as a Lake Erie port made it ideally situated for development in transportation, industry, and commerce.
By 1813 the port was receiving shipments from the cities in the East. Cleveland was chosen as the northern terminus of a canal system connecting the Ohio River and Lake Erie; it was completed in 1832. Cleveland was incorporated in 1836 as its population increased dramatically. Telegraph lines were installed in 1847, and shortly thereafter Western Union telegraph service was founded in Cleveland by Jeptha H. Wade. The opening of the Soo Canal in 1855 and the arrival of the railroad soon thereafter strengthened Cleveland's position as a transportation center.
The city played a significant role in the Civil War. Clevelanders generally opposed slavery, and a prominent local lawyer defended abolitionist John Brown. As a principal stop along the Oberlin-Wellington Trail, Cleveland was active in the Underground Railroad. While the city sent its share of volunteers to fight for the Union cause, during the Civil War the ironworks industry grew, aided by the discovery of soft coal in canal beds. After the war the iron industry continued to expand in Cleveland, and local fortunes were made in steel and shipping; those who benefited created the Cleveland residential district known as "Millionaires Row."
Industry and Reform Spell Progress
John D. Rockefeller's Standard Oil Company, organized in 1870, put Cleveland on the map as the nation's first oil capital. A rise in trade unionism paralleled Cleveland's industrialization. The Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers established headquarters in the city, which was the site of national labor meetings that eventually led to walkouts and brought about better conditions for workers. Inventors found a hospitable environment in Cleveland. Charles F. Brush, originator of the carbon arc lamp, founded the Brush Electric Light and Power Company and installed arc lamps throughout the city. He also invented and manufactured the first practical storage battery. Worcester R. Warner and Ambrose Swasey perfected automotive gear improvements and designed astronomy instruments, bringing about innovations in both industries.
Cleveland gained a reputation as a reform city during the five-term administration of Thomas Loftin Johnson, a captain of the steel and transportation industries. Johnson was influenced by the American social philosopher Henry George, and his administration won high praise from muckraking journalist Lincoln Steffens, who called Johnson the nation's "best mayor" and Cleveland "the best governed city in the United States." First elected to office on the "three-cent fare program," Johnson fought to overcome the entrenched political interests of his nemesis, Mark Hanna, who used his power to work against Johnson's reforms. Johnson, a mentor to a generation of young politicians, improved life in Cleveland by building new streets and parks, creating a municipal electric company to curb the abuses of private utilities, and introducing city-owned garbage and refuse collection. He also set standards for meat and dairy products, and even took down "keep off the grass" signs in city parks.
Like other Rust Belt cities, Cleveland suffered in the 1950s and 1960s, becoming the subject of national attention and ridicule when the polluted Cuyahoga River burst into flames in 1969. The event, a low point in Cleveland history, became a rallying point in the passage of the Clean Water Act of 1972.
Cleveland's renaissance began in the early 1980s. From grass roots efforts initiated by neighborhood groups, to the city's top brass—business, civic, and political leaders—citizens have worked hard to mold Cleveland into a model city for America. The result—$7 billion in capital investment, including new hotels and world-class attractions. The city has also gained international and national attention as a model city for urban progress. Cleveland has been awarded the coveted "All America City" distinction five times.
The sheen from that title was growing tarnished by the mid-2000s, however. With a high school graduation rate among the lowest in the nation, along with taxes among the highest, Cleveland faced challenges in many arenas. Community leaders and businesses united to tackle these problems by stimulating innovation and entrepreneurship, attracting new businesses while retaining existing ones, and encouraging education and workforce development.
Historical Information: Western Reserve Historical Society, 10825 East Blvd., Cleveland, OH 44106; telephone (216)721-5722; email email@example.com. Great Lakes Historical Society, Clarence Metcalf Research Library, 480 Main St., PO Box 435, Vermillion, OH 44089; telephone (216)967-3467; email firstname.lastname@example.org.
"Cleveland: History." Cities of the United States. . Encyclopedia.com. (January 17, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/cleveland-history
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Cleveland (cities, United States)
Cleveland:1 City (1990 pop. 505,616), seat of Cuyahoga co., NE Ohio, on Lake Erie at the mouth of the Cuyahoga River; laid out (1796) by Moses Cleaveland, chartered as a city 1836. Ohio's second largest city and the center of the state's largest metropolitan area, it is an ore port and a Great Lakes shipping point. In spite of a dramatic decline in manufacturing, Cleveland remains to some extent dependent on heavy industry, including steel milling and the manufacture of engines, guided missiles, and space vehicles. There are numerous research firms; the National Aeronautics and Space Administration has a large center here, and the headquarters of the lighting division and the Lighting and Electrical Institute of the General Electric Company is in nearby Nela Park. Cleveland also houses some of the nation's largest law firms. The health care industry is the fastest growing segment of Cleveland's economy, largely because of the presence of the Cleveland Clinic, a world-famous research and treatment facility and the city's largest employer.
Cleveland is the seat of Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland State Univ., John Carroll Univ., Notre Dame College, the Cleveland Institute of Art, the Cleveland Institute of Music, and several other colleges and seminaries. Visitors are drawn to the Mall (civic center); the Terminal Tower; the Rock-and-Roll Hall of Fame; the Western Reserve Historical Society Museum; the museum of natural history, with a planetarium; Wade Park, with the Cleveland Museum of Art and the Fine Arts Garden; Rockefeller Park, enclosing the Shakespeare and Cultural Gardens; Severance Hall, where concerts of the internationally famous Cleveland Orchestra are performed; the Cleveland zoo; and an aquarium. The city also has a notable public library. The Cleveland Plain Dealer is a nationally known newspaper. In Lake View Cemetery are the graves of James A. Garfield, Mark Hanna (who made his fortune in Cleveland), John Hay, and John D. Rockefeller.
Cleveland grew rapidly after the opening of the first section of the Ohio and Erie Canal in 1827 and the arrival of the railroad in 1851. With its factories it attracted large numbers of 19th-century immigrants, including Irish, Germans, Italians, Poles, Czechs, Hungarians, and many others. Its location midway between the coal and oil fields of Pennsylvania and (via the Great Lakes) the Minnesota iron mines spurred industrialization; it was here that John D. Rockefeller began his oil dynasty. Cleveland's African-American community was formed largely by migration from the South after World War I.
The city was plagued during the 1960s by racial disorders, especially in the Hough and Glenville sections. In 1967, Cleveland became the first major U.S. city to elect a black mayor, Carl B. Stokes. As industry rapidly declined from the 1960s, the city went through a period of Rust Belt decay; numerous factories shut down and people and businesses moved to the suburbs. Cleveland's population declined 44% between 1950 and 1990. In 1979, the city declared bankruptcy after defaulting on $15.5 million in municipal loans. In the 1980s, however, Cleveland attracted investment downtown and revitalized some sections, and the 1990s saw the opening of Jacobs Field (for baseball's Indians), Gund Arena (for basketball's Cavaliers), Browns Stadium (for football's Browns), the Great Lakes Science Center, and the Rock-and-Roll Hall of Fame as well as the restoration of three historic downtown shopping arcades.
See E. J. Benton, Cultural Story of an American City: Cleveland (3 vol., 1943–46); G. E. Condon, Yesterday's Cleveland (1976); F. Thompson, The Workers Who Built Cleveland (1987).
2 City (1990 pop. 30,354), seat of Bradley co., SE Tenn.; inc. 1838. Agriculture (fruits, vegetables, wheat) is the economic mainstay, but a variety of products, including furniture, chemicals, and textiles, are manufactured. Lee College is there. Cleveland is headquarters of the Cherokee National Forest.
"Cleveland (cities, United States)." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (January 17, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/cleveland-cities-united-states
"Cleveland (cities, United States)." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved January 17, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/cleveland-cities-united-states
CLEVELAND, the largest city in Ohio from 1900 to the 1980s and a leading Great Lakes industrial center during the twentieth century. In 1796, Moses Cleavel and laid out the original plan for the settlement that was to bear his name. The village grew slowly, having only about five hundred residents in 1825. That year, however, the Ohio legislature designated Cleveland the northern terminus of the Ohio and Erie Canal, which linked the Ohio River and Lake Erie. Completed in 1832, the canal transformed Cleveland into a booming commercial center with more than six thousand residents by 1840.
In the early 1850s, the arrival of the railroad ushered in a half century of large-scale industrialization. Cleveland became a major producer of iron and steel and the headquarters of John D. Rockefeller's oil refining empire. Owing in part to the local inventor Charles Brush, the manufacturing of electrical equipment developed as a major
industry. During the early twentieth century, the motor vehicle industry added thousands of new jobs for Clevelanders.
Attracted largely by employment opportunities, European immigrants flooded the city. Germans predominated through most of the nineteenth century, but by the early twentieth century, eastern Europeans prevailed. Cleveland could boast of the largest Slovak and Slovene settlements in America as well as thousands of Poles, Czechs, and Hungarians.
In the early twentieth century, Cleveland earned a reputation for progressive government as mayors Tom Johnson and Newton Baker battled for municipal ownership of public utilities. By the 1920s, a ring of suburban municipalities was burgeoning around Cleveland, eventually precluding further annexation of territory to the city. Immigration quotas stemmed the tide of European newcomers, although thousands of white and black southerners flocked to Cleveland, especially in the 1940s and 1950s. During the second half of the twentieth century, however, the city's population steadily declined, from 914, 808 in 1950 to 478,403 in 2000. New office towers arose in the central business district, but neighborhoods decayed, and after 1970 manufacturing jobs disappeared. In 1966 racial unrest resulted in nationally publicized rioting in the Hough area, and twelve years later the troubled city suffered the humiliation of defaulting on debt payments. Despite loss of population and manufacturing jobs, local boosters in the 1980s and 1990s proclaimed Cleveland's comeback, pointing to the construction of downtown stadiums and such new tourist attractions as the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and the Great Lakes Science Center.
Miller, Carol Poh, and Robert Wheeler. Cleveland: A Concise History, 1796–1990. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1990.
Van Tassel, David D., and John J. Grabowski, eds. The Encyclopedia of Cleveland History. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1987.
"Cleveland." Dictionary of American History. . Encyclopedia.com. (January 17, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/cleveland
"Cleveland." Dictionary of American History. . Retrieved January 17, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/cleveland
Newspapers and Magazines
Cleveland's major daily newspaper is the Plain Dealer, which is also Ohio's largest daily newspaper. Numerous community newspapers, including the Call & Post, an African American community newspaper, also circulate in the city. Cleveland Magazine, for readers in the Cleveland metropolitan area, features articles on politics and urban and suburban contemporary living and events. Northern Ohio LIVE, a monthly magazine describing entertainment opportunities, and Crain's Cleveland Business are also published there. The award-winning Cleveland Scene is an alternative magazine published weekly.
About 80 specialized magazines and trade, professional, and scholarly journals are published in Cleveland on such subjects as explosives engineering, local history, fraternal organizations, lawn care, ethnic culture, business and economics, religion, medicine, welding and metal production, food service, and building trades.
Television and Radio
Cleveland is the broadcast media center for northeastern Ohio. Greater Cleveland television viewers tune into programming scheduled by five stations based there. A dozen AM and FM radio stations broadcast a wide range of listening choices, from religious and inspirational features to news and talk shows to all major musical genres.
Media Information: Plain Dealer, 1801 Superior Ave., Cleveland, OH 44114; telephone (216)999-6000. Cleveland Magazine, 1422 Euclid Ave., Ste. 730, Cleveland, OH 44115; telephone (216)771-2833; fax (216)781-6318. Northern Ohio LIVE, 11320 Juniper Rd., Cleveland, OH 44106; telephone (216)721-1800; email email@example.com
City of Cleveland Home Page. Available www.city.cleveland.oh.us
Cleveland Municipal School District. Available www.cmsdnet.net
Cleveland Public Library. Available www.cpl.org
Convention & Visitors Bureau of Greater Cleveland. Available www.travelcleveland.com
Greater Cleveland Partnership. Available www.clevelandgrowth.com
Plain Dealer. Available www.plaindealer.com
Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. Available www.rockhall.com
Chapman, Edmund H., Cleveland, Village to Metropolis: A Case Study of Problems of Urban Development in Nineteenth-Century America (Cleveland, Ohio: Western Reserve Historical Society, 1964)
Grubb, Davis, The Night of the Hunter (New York: Harper & Row, 1953)
Grubb, Davis, Oh Beulah Land: A Novel (New York: Viking, 1956)
Jones, Jennie, Cleveland: A Celebration in Color (2nd ed., Cleveland, OH: Cleveland Stock Images, 1987)
Miller, Carl H., Breweries of Cleveland (Schnitzelbank Press, 1998)
Phillips, Kimberley L., Alabama North: African-American Migrants, Community, and Working-Class Activism in Cleveland, 1915-45 (The Working Class in American History) (University of Illinois Press, 2000)
Schneider, Russell, The Boys of the Summer of '48 (Sports Publishing Inc., 1998)
"Cleveland: Communications." Cities of the United States. . Encyclopedia.com. (January 17, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/cleveland-communications
"Cleveland: Communications." Cities of the United States. . Retrieved January 17, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/cleveland-communications
Cleveland: Population Profile
Cleveland: Population Profile
Metropolitan Area Residents
Percent change, 1990–2000: 0.2%
U.S. rank in 1980: 11th
U.S. rank in 1990: Not reported
U.S. rank in 2000: 16th (PMSA)
2003 estimate: 461,324
Percent change, 1990–2000: -5.4%
U.S. rank in 1980: 18th
U.S. rank in 1990: 23rd
U.S. rank in 2000: 40th (State rank: 2nd)
Density: 6,166.5 people per square mile (2000)
Racial and ethnic characteristics (2000)
Black or African American: 243,939
American Indian and Alaska Native: 1,458
Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander: 178
Hispanic or Latino (may be of any race): 34,728
Percent of residents born in state: 71.2% (2000)
Age characteristics (2000)
Population under 5 years old: 38,594
Population 5 to 9 years old: 41,708
Population 10 to 14 years old: 36,799
Population 15 to 19 years old: 32,495
Population 20 to 24 years old: 32,061
Population 25 to 34 years old: 71,847
Population 35 to 44 years old: 73,822
Population 45 to 54 years old: 55,111
Population 55 to 59 years old: 18,857
Population 60 to 64 years old: 17,130
Population 65 to 74 years old: 31,573
Population 75 to 84 years old: 21,266
Population 85 years and older: 7,140
Median age: 33.0 years
Births (2002, Cuyahoga County) Total number: 17,375
Deaths (2002, Cuyahoga County) Total number: 15,177 (of which, 180 were infants under the age of 1 year)
Money income (1999)
Per capita income: $14,291
Median household income: $25,928
Total households: 190,725
Number of households with income of . . .
less than $10,000: 40,118
$10,000 to $14,999: 18,446
$15,000 to $24,999: 33,725
$25,000 to $34,999: 28,228
$35,000 to $49,999: 28,814
$50,000 to $74,999: 25,592
$75,000 to $99,999: 9,328
$100,000 to $149,999: 4,336
$150,000 to $199,999: 820
$200,000 or more: 1,318
Percent of families below poverty level: 22.9% (59.4% of which were female householder families with related children under 5 years)
2002 FBI Crime Index Total: 33,209
"Cleveland: Population Profile." Cities of the United States. . Encyclopedia.com. (January 17, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/cleveland-population-profile
"Cleveland: Population Profile." Cities of the United States. . Retrieved January 17, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/cleveland-population-profile
Approaching the City
Cleveland-Hopkins International Airport, the Midwestern hub for Continental Airlines, is served by 12 national, two international, and 11 commuter carriers that schedule direct and connecting flights throughout the United States and to major foreign cities. A rapid transit system connects the airport to downtown. Commuter air service to regional cities is available at Burke Lakefront Airport; business and general aviation traffic is handled at Cuyahoga County Airport. Twenty-one other general aviation facilities are located in the metropolitan area.
Three major interstates intersect downtown Cleveland: I-77 and I-71, which run north and south, and I-90, which runs east and west. In addition, I-480 connects the eastern and western Cleveland suburbs and runs south of the city, bypassing the downtown area; I-490 does the same by connecting I-90 and I-71 to I-77. Amtrak provides rail transportation service into Cleveland.
Traveling in the City
The Regional Transit Authority (RTA) operates Cleveland's extensive rapid transit system. RTA has a direct link from downtown Public Square to Hopkins International Airport. The Waterfront Line, a light rail transportation system, connects Cleveland's downtown attractions. Visitors can conveniently and economically travel from Public Square and Tower City Center's hotels and shopping venues to the Flats Entertainment District and North Coast Harbor attractions like the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, Great Lakes Science Center, and Cleveland Browns Stadium. Trolley tours and riverboat cruises offer unique and informative views of the city. Average intracity commuting time is under 24 minutes.
"Cleveland: Transportation." Cities of the United States. . Encyclopedia.com. (January 17, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/cleveland-transportation
"Cleveland: Transportation." Cities of the United States. . Retrieved January 17, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/cleveland-transportation
Cleveland: Health Care
Cleveland: Health Care
Cleveland is home to a number of the nation's top institutions providing health care, medical education, and medical research and technology. The Cleveland metropolitan area is served by 50 hospitals; 23 are affiliated with medical schools, including Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine. The region employs more than 9,000 physicians and 23,000 health care professionals.
Cleveland Clinic and University Hospital Health Systems control 90-plus percent of the area's hospital beds. The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, which pioneered kidney transplants and open-heart surgery, is a 945-bed treatment and referral center for patients throughout the United States and the world. It consistently ranks among the best hospitals in the country in U.S. News & World Report surveys. Cleveland Clinic rates highly for care in cardiology, gastroenterology, neurology, orthopedics, and urology. Rainbow Babies and Childrens Hospital is one of the country's best for pediatric and neonatal intensive care. University Hospitals, nationally recognized for cancer research and treatment, receives excellent rankings in three specialties. Among other Cleveland facilities in the medical forefront is St. Vincent Charity Hospital, which participated in the development of the first heart-lung machines.
Health Care Information: Cleveland Health Education Museum, 8911 Euclid Ave.; Cleveland, OH; telephone (216)231-5010
"Cleveland: Health Care." Cities of the United States. . Encyclopedia.com. (January 17, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/cleveland-health-care
"Cleveland: Health Care." Cities of the United States. . Retrieved January 17, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/cleveland-health-care
Cleveland: Geography and Climate
Cleveland: Population Profile
Cleveland: Municipal Government
Cleveland: Education and Research
Cleveland: Health Care
Cleveland: Convention Facilities
The City in Brief
Founded: 1796 (incorporated 1836)
Head Official: Mayor Jane Campbell (D) (since 2001)
2003 estimate: 461,324
Percent change, 1990–2000: -5.4%
U.S. rank in 1980: 18th
U.S. rank in 1990: 23rd
U.S. rank in 2000: 40th (State rank: 2nd)
Metropolitan Area Population
Percent change, 1990–2000: 0.2%
U.S. rank in 1980: 11th
U.S. rank in 1990: Not reported
U.S. rank in 2000: 16th (PMSA)
Area: 82.42 square miles (2000)
Elevation: most of the city is on a level plain 60 to 80 feet above Lake Erie
Average Annual Temperature: 49.6° F
Average Annual Precipitation: 38.71 inches of rain; 55.8 inches of snow
Major Economic Sectors: Services, wholesale and retail trade, manufacturing, government
Unemployment Rate: 6.3% (March 2005)
Per Capita Income: $14,291 (1999)
2002 FBI Crime Index Total: 33,209
Major Colleges and Universities: Case Western Reserve University; Cleveland State University
Daily Newspaper: Plain Dealer
"Cleveland." Cities of the United States. . Encyclopedia.com. (January 17, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/cleveland
"Cleveland." Cities of the United States. . Retrieved January 17, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/cleveland
Cleveland: Convention Facilities
Cleveland: Convention Facilities
The Tradeshow Week Major Exhibit Hall Directory ranks the International Exposition & Conference Center ninth in the nation for exhibition space. Situated on a 175-acre site next to Cleveland-Hopkins International Airport, the center contains 902,000 square feet of exhibit space, 800,000 of which is contained in a single room. The Cleveland Convention Center, located downtown, contains 375,000 square feet of flexible exhibit space that can be divided into four separate meeting halls; 37 meetings rooms are available to accommodate up to 10,000 attendees. The largest room in the Cleveland Masonic Temple & Auditorium is 15,000 square feet, and the largest in the Cleveland State University Convocation Center is 23,520 square feet.
Other convention and meeting facilities are located throughout the Greater Cleveland area; among them are the Forum, Grays Armory, Play House Square Center, and the Spitzer Conference Center, located in Elyria approximately 20 minutes from the Cleveland-Hopkins International Airport.
Convention Information: Convention & Visitors Bureau of Greater Cleveland, 3100 Terminal Tower, 50 Public Sq., Cleveland, OH 44113; telephone (216)621-4110; toll-free 800-321-1001; fax (216)623-4499; email firstname.lastname@example.org
"Cleveland: Convention Facilities." Cities of the United States. . Encyclopedia.com. (January 17, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/cleveland-convention-facilities
"Cleveland: Convention Facilities." Cities of the United States. . Retrieved January 17, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/cleveland-convention-facilities
Cleveland: Geography and Climate
Cleveland: Geography and Climate
Extending 31 miles along the south shore of Lake Erie, Cleveland is surrounded by generally level terrain except for an abrupt ridge that rises 500 feet above the shore on the eastern edge of the city. Cleveland is bisected from north to south by the Cuyahoga River. The continental climate is modified by west to northerly winds off Lake Erie, which lower summer temperatures and raise winter temperatures. Summers are moderately warm and humid, winters relatively cold and cloudy. Snowfall fluctuates widely, ranging from 45 inches in west Cuyahoga County to 90 inches in the east. Thunderstorms often bring damaging winds of 50 miles per hour or greater; tornadoes occur frequently.
Area: 82.42 square miles (2000)
Elevation: most of the city is on a level plain 60 to 80 feet above Lake Erie
Average Temperatures: January, 25.7° F; July, 71.9° F; annual average, 49.6° F
Average Annual Precipitation: 38.71 inches of rain; 55.8 inches of snow
"Cleveland: Geography and Climate." Cities of the United States. . Encyclopedia.com. (January 17, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/cleveland-geography-and-climate
"Cleveland: Geography and Climate." Cities of the United States. . Retrieved January 17, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/cleveland-geography-and-climate
Cleveland Orchestra, one of the foremost orchestras in the United States. It gave its first performance in 1918 under Nikolai Sokoloff, who was conductor until 1933. In 1931, the orchestra moved from the Cleveland Masonic Temple into the Georgian-style Severance Hall, located in Cleveland's University Circle area. (The hall was restored and renovated in 1999 and reopened in 2000.) Since 1968, the orchestra has also performed at the Blossom Music Center just S of the city. Sokoloff was succeeded as conductor by Artur Rodzinski (1933–43) and Erich Leinsdorf (1943–46), and the orchestra achieved renown under the direction of George Szell (1946–70). A perfectionist and disciplinarian, Szell brought the orchestra to international attention, leading it on several European tours and establishing its modern reputation for ascetic brilliance and commitment to serious music. He was succeeded by Lorin Maazel (1972–84), Christoph von Dohnányi (1984–2002), and Franz Welser-Möst (2002–). The orchestra tours widely, has a biennial residency at the Musikverein in Vienna, and since 2007 has had a winter residence at the Carnival Center in Miami.
"Cleveland Orchestra." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (January 17, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/cleveland-orchestra
"Cleveland Orchestra." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved January 17, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/cleveland-orchestra
The seat of Cuyahoga County, Cleveland is Ohio's second largest city and is at the center of a metropolitan statistical area that encompasses Cuyahoga, Geauga, Lake, and Medina counties. The city's location on Lake Erie accounts for its success as a transportation, industrial, and commercial center. Cleveland contributed a number of industrial discoveries that benefited national growth and prosperity in the nineteenth century. In the early twentieth century, the local political system set a standard for reform that contributed to the general welfare of its citizens. Today Cleveland's revitalized central business and commercial districts complement its cultural institutions and major professional sports teams.
"Cleveland: Introduction." Cities of the United States. . Encyclopedia.com. (January 17, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/cleveland-introduction
"Cleveland: Introduction." Cities of the United States. . Retrieved January 17, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/cleveland-introduction
"Cleveland." World Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. (January 17, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/cleveland
"Cleveland." World Encyclopedia. . Retrieved January 17, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/cleveland
Cleveland: Municipal Government
Cleveland: Municipal Government
Cleveland city government is administered by a mayor and a 21-member council. Councilpersons and the mayor, who is not a member of council, are elected to four-year terms.
Head Official: Mayor Jane Campbell (D) (since 2001; current term expires November 2005)
Total Number of City Employees: 8,743 (2003)
City Information: Cleveland City Hall, 601 Lakeside Ave., Cleveland, OH 44114; telephone (216)664-2000
"Cleveland: Municipal Government." Cities of the United States. . Encyclopedia.com. (January 17, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/cleveland-municipal-government
"Cleveland: Municipal Government." Cities of the United States. . Retrieved January 17, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/cleveland-municipal-government
"Cleveland Orchestra." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Music. . Encyclopedia.com. (January 17, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/arts/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/cleveland-orchestra
"Cleveland Orchestra." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Music. . Retrieved January 17, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/arts/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/cleveland-orchestra
"Cleveland." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Encyclopedia.com. (January 17, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/cleveland
"Cleveland." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Retrieved January 17, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/cleveland