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Hans Holbein the Younger

Hans Holbein the Younger

The German painter and graphic artist Hans Holbein the Younger (c. 1497-1543) combined consummate technical skill with a keen eye for realistic appearance and was the first portrait painter to achieve international fame.

Hans Holbein the Younger, born in Augsburg, was the son of a painter, Hans Holbein the Elder, and received his first artistic training from his father. Hans the Younger may have had early contacts with the Augsburg painter Hans Burgkmair the Elder. In 1515 Hans the Younger and his older brother, Ambrosius, went to Basel, where they were apprenticed to the Swiss painter Hans Herbster. Hans the Younger worked in Lucerne in 1517 and visited northern Italy in 1518-1519.

On Sept. 25, 1519, Holbein was enrolled in the painters' guild of Basel, and the following year he set up his own workshop, became a citizen of Basel, and married the widow Elsbeth Schmid, who bore him four children. He painted altarpieces, portraits, and murals and made designs for woodcuts, stained glass, and jewelry. Among his patrons was Erasmus of Rotterdam, who had settled in Basel in 1521. In 1524 Holbein visited France.

Holbein gave up his workshop in Basel in 1526 and went to England, armed with a letter of introduction from Erasmus to Sir Thomas More, who received him warmly. Holbein quickly achieved fame and financial success. In 1528 he returned to Basel, where he bought property and received commissions from the city council, Basel publishers, Erasmus, and others. However, with iconoclastic riots instigated by fanatic Protestants, Basel hardly offered the professional security that Holbein desired.

In 1532 Holbein returned to England and settled permanently in London, although he left his family in Basel, retained his Basel citizenship, and visited Basel in 1538. He was patronized especially by country gentlemen from Norfolk, German merchants from the Steel Yard in London, and King Henry VIII and his court. Holbein died in London between Oct. 7 and Nov. 29, 1543.

First Period: Basel (1515-1526)

With few exceptions, Holbein's work falls naturally into the four periods corresponding to his alternate residences in Basel and London. His earliest extant work is a tabletop with trompe l'oeil motifs (1515) painted for the Swiss standard-bearer Hans Baer. Other notable works of the first Basel period are a diptych of Burgomaster Jakob Meyer zum Hasen and his wife, Dorothea Kannengiesser (1516); a portrait of Bonifacius Amerbach (1519); an unsparingly realistic Dead Christ (1521); a Madonna and Child Enthroned with Two Saints (1522); several portraits of Erasmus, of which the one in Paris (1523 or shortly after), with its accurate observation of the scholar's concentrated attitude and frail person and its beautifully balanced composition, is particularly outstanding; and woodcuts, among which the series of the Dance of Death (ca. 1521-1525, though not published until 1538) represents one of the high points of the artist's graphic oeuvre.

Probably about 1520 Holbein painted an altarpiece, the Last Supper, now somewhat cut down, which is based on Leonardo da Vinci's famous painting, and four panels with eight scenes of the Passion of Christ (possibly the shutters of the Last Supper altarpiece), which contain further reminiscences of Italian painting, particularly Andrea Mantegna, the Lombard school, and Raphael, but with lighting effects that are characteristically northern. His two portraits of Magdalena Offenburg, as Laïs of Corinth and Venus with Cupid (1526), were evidently influenced by French portrait painting, although they reflect Leonardesque ideals and the Laïsextends her right hand in a manner reminiscent of that of Christ in Leonardo's Last Supper.

Second Period: England (1526-1528)

The preserved works of Holbein's second period consist exclusively of portraits, among them Sir Thomas More; Sir Henry Guildford and its pendant, Lady Mary Guildford; William Warham, Archbishop of Canterbury (two versions), all of 1527; and the very sensitive Niklaus Kratzer, shown with his astronomical instruments (1528). The lost portrait of Sir Thomas More and his family, known through Holbein's drawing of the whole composition, seven preliminary sketches for the heads, and several painted copies, is a pioneering work in group portraiture.

Third Period: Basel (1528-1532)

During this period Holbein continued his activity as a portrait painter, decorated the facade of a house, "zum Kaiserstuhl" (of which preparatory drawings exist), completed the decoration of the council chamber in the town hall (1530; fragments are preserved in Basel), and designed woodcuts for the Old Testament (1531, published 1538) and other books. The masterpiece among the portraits of this period is the Artist's Family, representing his wife and two of his children (1528/1529); it is a touching portrait painted with a dispassionate realism that conveys with utmost clarity the gloom and loneliness of the woman. The altarpiece Madonna of Mercy with the Family of Jakob Meyer, which Holbein had begun about 1526, before he left for England, was completed in 1528. It is a symmetrically organized picture with the figures closely contained in a pyramidal group in front of a shell-backed niche of Renaissance inspiration.

Fourth Period: England (1532-1543)

The last period of Holbein's life marks the culmination of his career as a portrait painter, with his subjects now mainly the wealthy German merchants in London and the King and his court. Characteristic examples are George Gisze (1532), a Danzig merchant shown in the surroundings of his business activity; Hermann Wedigh (1532), a merchant of Cologne; The Ambassadors (1533), a full-length double portrait, tightly organized and precise in the rendering of musical and astronomical instruments and an anamorphic skull; Robert Cheseman of Dormanswell (1533); Charles de Solier, Sieur de Morette (1534/1535); Henry VIII (1536; Lugano-Castagnola), the first of several portraits of the monarch shown in full regal splendor, and its pendant, Jane Seymour; Christina of Denmark, Duchess of Milan (1538), a full-length portrait; Edward VI as a child (1539); Anne of Cleves (1539/1540; Paris); and Sir William Butts (ca. 1543).

During this period Holbein learned the technique of portrait miniatures and produced important works of this kind, such as Anne of Cleves (1539/1540; London) and Mrs. Pemberton (ca. 1540). Other works of this final period include a project for a triumphal arch with Apollo and the Muses on Parnassus for the merchants of the Steel Yard on the occasion of the coronation procession of Anne Boleyn (1533); allegorical wall decorations in the guildhall of the Steel Yard (ca. 1533; lost); designs for goldsmith work and jewelry for Henry VIII (from ca. 1536 on); and the decoration of the privy chamber in Whitehall Palace (1537; destroyed by fire in 1698), for which a cartoon for the left side, showing Henry VII and Henry VIII, is preserved.

His Style

Holbein's art is characterized by superb technical skill, an unerring sense of composition and pattern, a sound grasp of three-dimensional form and space, and a sharp eye for realistic detail. His portraits are painted with a passion for objectivity, the outward appearance of his subjects directly reflecting their inner character or mood without the intrusion of the artist's attitude toward them. His drawings, frequently executed in black and colored chalks (following a practice he may have observed in France), bear testimony to this artistic temperament: they are precise and controlled, and the outline dominates as the expressive agent.

Holbein's development was gradual and appears to have been guided essentially by his successful search for objective precision. In the work of his second English period he concentrated more on clear contours and ornament and was less concerned with three-dimensional form and space, with the result that his last portraits are relatively flat and decorative, characteristics generally associated with 16th-century mannerism.

Further Reading

A concise biography and critical account of Holbein's work are in Paul Ganz, The Paintings of Hans Holbein (1st complete edition, 1950). See also Arthur B. Chamberlain, Hans Holbein the Younger (2 vols., 1913). Specialized studies include K. T. Parker, The Drawings of Hans Holbein in the Collection of His Majesty the King at Windsor Castle (1945), and James M. Clark, The Dance of Death by Hans Holbein (1947). □

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Holbein, Hans

Hans Holbein (häns hôl´bīn) the elder, c.1465–1524, German painter and draftsman.

Holbein worked principally in Augsburg and Ulm, painting altarpieces for churches and probably creating portraits as well. Such early works as the altarpiece depicting the Life of the Virgin (Augsburg Cathedral) and the large Basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore altarpiece (Augsburg) show little divergence from the common practice of the Swabian school, which was influenced by the Flemish style.

In later altarpieces done after c.1500, such as those of the Basilica of St. Paul (Augsburg) and of St. Catherine (Augsburg) and especially in his masterly St. Sebastian altarpiece (Munich), Holbein's art shows the influence of Italy. In addition to his painting, Holbein designed stained glass windows for the cathedral at Eichstatt and for the Church of Saints Ulrich and Afra at Augsburg. He also produced a number of remarkable silverpoint portrait drawings that show something of the same talent for which his son Hans became renowned.

Ambrosius Holbein

Hans Holbein's older son, Ambrosius Holbein, c.1495–c.1519, is best known for his detailed book illustrations and portraits done in his father's manner. The Basel Museum has several works attributed to him.

Hans Holbein the Younger

The younger and better known son, Hans Holbein the younger, c.1497–1543, was an outstanding portrait and religious painter of the Northern Renaissance, was influenced by his father and by Hans Burgkmair. The first half of his life was spent in Basel except for short intervals in Lucerne, Lombardy, and France. He showed his diverse talents early in his career by designing woodcuts and glass paintings, illustrating books, and painting portraits and altarpieces. From youth he enjoyed the friendship of the great humanist Erasmus, and he made pen drawings illustrating Erasmus's Praise of Folly. Of this period are the portraits of Jacob Meyer and his wife and the beautiful preliminary drawing of Meyer in red chalk and silverpoint (all: Basel).

In 1519 Holbein was admitted to the painters' guild of Basel. Between 1519 and 1526 he decorated many buildings there, including the Town Hall, and painted the Passion Scenes and the celebrated Dead Christ (both in Basel), the altarpiece in Solothurn of the Madonna with St. Ursus and a Bishop Saint, and the famous Madonna of Burgomaster Meyer altarpiece (Darmstadt). Also of this period are several of his numerous portraits of Erasmus and a portrait of Boniface Amerbach (Basel). In these works the artist, now mature, shows his full genius without relinquishing the polished surface and enameled color of the earlier paintings. He reveals Italian influence in his larger conception and monumental composition and in the design and idealism of the characterization. A bold and subtle line, both precise and flowing, distinguishes these works.

From 1526 to 1528, Holbein was in England, where he painted a fine group of portraits, including those of Sir Thomas More (Frick Coll., New York City) and Sir Henry Guildford (Windsor Castle) and his wife (City Art Mus., St. Louis). After another residence (1528–32) in Basel, where he executed a second group of frescoes for the Town Hall (both series later destroyed), he settled in England and worked on portraits and wall paintings. Among the many famous portraits of these last years are those of Christine of Denmark and The French Ambassadors (both: National Gall., London). In 1536 he became court painter to Henry VIII and made numerous portraits and drawings of the king and his wives. His own wife and children, of whom there is a beautiful group portrait (Basel Mus.), remained in Basel. At 46 Holbein died of the plague in London.

In addition to his paintings, Hans Holbein the younger, left to the world magnificent preliminary portrait drawings in which he combined chalk, silverpoint, pen and ink, and other media. Today they are prized as highly as his paintings and may constitute a freer expression of his gift for exquisite characterization. In the beautiful simplicity of their design and in the subtle suggestion of both form and character, they are unsurpassed. Also famous are his woodcuts, which include the Dance of Death series and illustrations for Luther's Bible.

Many European museums possess examples of his paintings. At Windsor Castle are 80 Holbein portrait drawings. In the United States the Metropolitan Museum has several portraits; the Frick Collection, New York City, has two; and the National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., has two.

Bibliography

See studies by P. Ganz (2d ed. 1956) and M. Kay (1966).

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Holbein, Hans (the Younger) (1497–1543)

Holbein, Hans (the Younger) (14971543)

A German artist, a leader of the Renaissance in northern Europe, who achieved his most famous works at the court of King Henry VIII of England. Born in Augsburg, a town of southern Germany, he was a student of his father, Hans Holbein the Elder, a noted painter of the late Gothic style in Germany. Holbein the Younger journeyed to Switzerland, where he apprenticed with the painter Hans Herbster and where he joined the painters guild. He also encountered the humanist scholar Desiderius Erasmus, who engaged him to create illustrations for his book In Praise of Folly. Holbein ran a busy workshop in Basel that turned out portraits on commission from the city's leading families, as well as altarpieces and stained glass for local churches. Well-known works from this time are the paintings Dead Christ and Madonna and Child Enthroned with Two Saints, and a series of forty woodcut prints known as the Dance of Death. In 1524, he visited France, where he discovered the technique of drawing in chalk, a method employed by the French portraitist Jean Clouet. Holbein left Basel in 1526 to seek better opportunities in England. Through a letter of introduction written by Erasmus, Holbein met Sir Thomas More, who was serving as a chancellor for Henry VIII. Holbein returned to Basel in 1528, completing several more woodcut series for books as well as The Artist's Family, a picture of his wife and two children. Although he planned to settle in Basel, Holbein found that the Protestant Reformation under the leadership of Huldrych Zweingli was hostile to patronage of artists by the church. In 1532 he returned to England and became a citizen of London.

At the royal court, Holbein painted a series of royal portraits, and also served as a designer of ceremonial clothing, monuments, and palace decor. Holbein painted the king, the king's wives and courtiers, and notables such as More, Thomas Cromwell, Desiderius Erasmus, Sir Henry Guildford, the astronomer Nicholas Kratzer, and William Warham, the archbishop of Canterbury. Holbein also earned many portrait commissions from the German merchants living in London. His portraitscarefully prepared pencil or chalk sketches that were transferred directly to oak panelsare masterpieces of color, strong outline, and realistic detail, especially in the depiction of the emotions and character of their subjects. Holbein was among the first portrait painters to gain renown; before his time, portraitists were simply artisans who prepared a work of art much as a carpenter creates a piece of furniture.

See Also: Erasmus, Desiderius; Henry VIII; More, Sir Thomas

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Hollein, Hans

Hollein, Hans (1934– ). Austrian architect. He established his reputation with small, well-crafted shops, including the Retti Candle Shop (1964–5), Schullin Jewellery Shop with its ‘cracked’ front (1972–4), and the Austrian State Travel Agency with its palm-tree supports (1976–8), all in Vienna, which employ materials such as marble, brass, stainless steel, and chrome, detailed with meticulous care. Less happy, however, is the relationship of the new fronts with the existing façades into which they are set, while the use of themes such as the apparently haphazard crack suggests tension and disruption of perfection. Much admired have been the Städtisches Museum, Abteiberg, Mönchen-gladbach (1972–82), with a grid-structure that breaks down in the corner, and the Museum of Modern Art, Frankfurt (1987–91). The Haas House, near the Cathedral in Vienna (1987–90), might suggest that ideas that work on the scale of a shop-front are less successful on a large, prominent building on a key site within a historic urban centre. His proposals for a Museum cut into the Mönschberg rock, Salzburg (1990), were ingenious, and included dramatic interiors.

Bibliography

Auty (1994);
Architectural Review, clxxii/1030 (Dec. 1982), 53–71;
Kalman (1994);
Klotz (1988);
Pettena (ed.) (1988);
Jane Turner (1996)

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Holbein, Hans

Holbein, Hans (c.1497–1543). Painter. It is hardly an exaggeration to suggest that our visual image of Henry VIII and his courtiers is derived from Holbein's portraits. Born the son of an Augsburg artist of the same name, Holbein paid two visits to England, a short one 1526–7 and a longer one 1532–43. On the first occasion he brought with him introductions from Erasmus, whom he painted frequently, to Sir Thomas More, painted a celebrated More family portrait, and may have carried out decoration work at court. On his next visit his patron More was in disfavour, but Holbein received many commissions, and entered the service of the king, for whom he painted a family reconstruction, showing Henry, his parents, and Jane Seymour. Holbein was also employed to travel abroad and paint prospective brides for the king: his too-flattering portrait of Anne of Cleves caused considerable embarrassment. The largest group of Holbein's work in Britain is in the Royal Collection. His magnificent portraits include More (1527), Archbishop Warham (1527), Thomas Cromwell (1534), Henry VIII (1536), Jane Seymour (1536), the duke of Norfolk (1540), the duke of Suffolk (1541), and the young Edward, prince of Wales (1543). An early commentator wrote of Holbein: ‘he is not a poet but an historian.’

June Cochrane

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Holbein (the Younger), Hans

Holbein (the Younger), Hans (1497–1543) German painter. His early work included religious paintings, such as Dead Christ (1521) and woodcuts such as Dance of Death (c.1523–25). Holbein's portraits of his friend Erasmus earned him the patronage (1526–28) of Sir Thomas More. In 1532, he settled permanently in London and became (1536) court painter to Henry VIII. Holbein's masterpieces include The Ambassadors (1533) and superb portraits of Christina of Denmark, Duchess of Milan (1538), and Anne of Cleves (1540).

http://www.metmuseum.org; http://www.nationalgallery.org.uk; http://www.nga.gov

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