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Omdurman

OMDURMAN

historical capital of the sudan.

Although Khartoum is the official capital of the Sudan, Omdurman is the country's historic, cultural, and spiritual capital. It is also part of a tri-city metropolitan area (with Khartoum and Khartoum North) that forms the country's political, industrial, and commercial heart. Originally an insignificant fishing village on the west bank at the confluence of the Blue Nile and the White Nile, Omdurman became a major city at the end of the nineteenth century when Muhammad Ahmad al-Mahdi made it his military headquarters in 1884. After the Mahdist forces destroyed Khartoum (1885), the Mahdi's successor, Khalifa Abdullah, made Omdurman his capital, and the city grew as the site of the Mahdi's tomb. The Battle of Karari (1898), which took place near Omdurman, marked the defeat of the Mahdist state in Sudan by the Anglo-Egyptian army of Lord Kitchener. Although most of the city was destroyed after the battle, the Mahdi's tomb has been restored and embellished. The Khalifa's former residence is now a museum. Recently, Omdurman has grown rapidly, and has an estimated population of well over two million. The major Sudanese political groups have their headquarters in the city, as do the television and radio networks and the famous soccer and cultural clubs. Although the official headquarters of the army is in Khartoum, the principal military installations are in Omdurman, including those of Sudan's air force.

see also ahmad, muhammad; khartoum; kitchener, horatio herbert; mahdi.


Bibliography


Ahmed, Medani Mohammed. Current Studies on the Sudan. Omdurman, Sudan: Mohamed Omer Beshir's Center for Sudanese Studies, 1998.

Pollock, John. Kitchener: Architect of Victory, Artisan of Peace. New York: Carroll & Graf, 2001.

Woodward, Peter, ed. Sudan after Nimeiri. London and New York: Routledge, 1991.

robert o. collins
updated by khalid m. el-hassan

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"Omdurman." Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa. . Encyclopedia.com. 15 Dec. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Omdurman." Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa. . Encyclopedia.com. (December 15, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/omdurman

"Omdurman." Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa. . Retrieved December 15, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/omdurman

Omdurman

Omdurman (ŏmdərmän´), Arab. Umm Durman, city (1993 pop. 1,271,403), E central Sudan, on the White Nile opposite Khartoum. It is the largest city and chief commercial center of Sudan and part of a tricity metropolitan area (with Khartoum and Khartoum North) that forms the country's industrial and cultural heart. Industries include leather tanning and furniture and pottery making.

In 1884 the Mahdi Muhammad Ahmad made his military headquarters at the village of Omdurman. After the Mahdist forces destroyed Khartoum (1885), the Mahdi's successor, Khalifa Addallah, made Omdurman his capital, and the city grew rapidly as the site of the Mahdi's tomb. The battle of Karari, which took place (1898) near Omdurman, marked the defeat of the Mahdist state in Sudan by the Anglo-Egyptian army of Lord Kitchener. Although most of the city was destroyed after the battle, the Mahdi's tomb has been restored and embellished. The Khalifa's former residence is now a museum.

See P. Ziegler, Omdurman (1974).

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"Omdurman." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 15 Dec. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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Omdurman

Omdurman. Town in central Sudan which came to prominence when the mahdi, a religious leader who led a holy war against the Egyptian government, made it his capital in 1885. Although British forces had occupied Egypt in 1882 the British government showed little interest in extending its influence further south until France cast covetous eyes on the region. In 1898 an Anglo-Egyptian army led by Sir Herbert Kitchener advanced into the Sudan. Early in September the battle for Omdurman took place, the town was occupied by Kitchener's forces, and the army of the mahdi was completely destroyed.

Kenneth Ingham

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"Omdurman." The Oxford Companion to British History. . Encyclopedia.com. 15 Dec. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"Omdurman." The Oxford Companion to British History. . Retrieved December 15, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/omdurman

Omdurman

Omdurman a city in central Sudan, on the Nile opposite Khartoum, which in 1885, following the victory of the Mahdi ( Muhammad Ahmad) and his forces over the British, was made the capital of the Mahdist state of Sudan. In 1898 it was recaptured by the British after the Battle of Omdurman, Kitchener's decisive victory over the Mahdi's successor, which marked the end of the uprising.

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"Omdurman." The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. . Encyclopedia.com. 15 Dec. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"Omdurman." The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. . Retrieved December 15, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/omdurman

Omdurman

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