FLORA AND FAUNA
ENERGY AND POWER
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
BALANCE OF PAYMENTS
BANKING AND SECURITIES
CUSTOMS AND DUTIES
LIBRARIES AND MUSEUMS
TOURISM, TRAVEL, AND RECREATION
Republic of Montenegro
FLAG: The flag, adopted in 2004, is a red banner with a gold border bearing the gold coat of arms of Montenegro.
ANTHEM: Oj svijetla majska zoro (Oh, Bright Dawn of May)
MONETARY UNIT: The euro is the official currency. The euro is divided into 100 cents. There are coins in denominations of 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, and 50 cents and 1 euro and 2 euros. There are notes of 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200, and 500 euros. As of 26 May 2006, €1=$1.27213 (or $1=€0.785927).
WEIGHTS AND MEASURES: The metric system is in force.
HOLIDAYS: For the union of Serbia and Montenegro: New Year's Day, 1 and 2 January; Orthodox Christmas, 7 January; Orthodox New Year, 13 January; Unification of Serbia, 28 March; Yugoslavia Day, 27 April; Labor Day, 1 May; Victory Day, 9 May; St. Vitus Day, 28 June; Serbian Uprising, 7 July.
TIME: 1 pm = noon GMT.
Montenegro is situated in southeastern Europe along the Adriatic Sea. The total area is 13,812 sq km (5,333 sq mi). Montenegro is bordered on the nw by Bosnia and Herzegovina, on the e by Serbia (the se border is with the UN-administered province of Kosovo, which is claimed by Serbia), on the s by Albania, and on the sw by the Adriatic Sea and a narrow strip of Croatia; total land boundary length is 614 km (302 mi) and the coastline is 294 km (183 mi). Montenegro's capital is Podgorica, located in the low-land plain region of the south.
The shoreline of southwestern Montenegro is highly elevated, with no offshore islands. The limestone mountains of Rumija, Sutorman, Orjen, and Lovcen separate the narrow strip of land that is the coastline from the inland regions. Of the 294 km (183 mi) of coastline, 52 km (32 mi) are beaches. The largest bay is the Bay of Kotor, which is the world's southernmost fjord. In the limestone area bordering the coastline, plants and animals are scarce, and patches of fertile land can be found in karst depressions and crater-like hollows. Lake Scutari (Skadarsko Jezero) is the largest lake in the country, covering an are of about 400 sq km (150 sq mi). The Zeta plain and Zeta River valley region on which Lake Scutari (Skadarsko) is found is a lowland region. Northern Montenegro is composed of limestone mountains. The highest peak in Montenegro is Mt. Durmitor (Bobotov kuk), at 2,522 m (8,274 ft). Other high peaks are Bjelasica, Komovi, and Visitor. These mountain ranges are rich in pasturelands, forests, and mountain lakes. The Piva, Tara, Moraca, and Cehotina rivers and their tributaries have carved deep canyons: the Tara Canyon, at a depth of 1,300 m (4,265 ft), is the deepest canyon in Europe.
Located on the Eurasian Tectonic Plate, there are several fault lines running through the country which are seismically active. Earth tremors are fairly common and destructive earthquakes have occurred.
The Adriatic climate along the south brings hot and dry summers and relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall inland. Podgorica is the warmest city, with an average July temperature of 26°c (80°f) and an average January temperature of 5°c (41°f). In the mountainous regions, the climate is sub-alpine. Snow on Mt. Durmitor can reach up to 5 m (16 ft). Annual precipitation ranges from 56 to 190 cm (22 to 75 in).
About 80% of the territory is comprised of forests, natural pasturelands, and meadows. There are 2,833 plant species and subspecies, which comprise nearly one quarter of European flora. The animals found in Montenegro include types of hare, pheasant, deer, stag, wild boar, fox, chamois, mouflon, crane, duck, and goose.
Coastal waters are polluted from sewage outlets, especially in resort areas such as Kotor. Destructive earthquakes are a natural hazard.
According to a 2006 report issued by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN), the number of threatened species in the combined union of Serbia and Montenegro included 10 types of mammals, 10 species of birds, 1 type of reptile, 1 species of amphibian, 20 species of fish, 19 species of invertebrates, and 1 species of plants. Threatened species include Atlantic sturgeon, slender-billed curlew, black vultures, asps, bald ibis, several species of shark, the red wood ant, and beluga. At least one type of mollusk has become extinct.
National parks in Montenegro include Durmitor, Lovcen, Biogradska gora, and Lake Skadar. Mt. Durmitor and the old city of Kotor are UNESCO World Heritage sites.
The population of Montenegro in 2006 was estimated at 678,000. According to the UN, the annual population rate of change for the combined union of Serbia and Montenegro for 2005–2010 was expected to be 0.2%, due to a low fertility rate and high emigration rate. The population density for Serbia and Montenegro was 105 per sq km (272 per sq mi). The UN estimated that 52% of the population lived in urban areas in 2005, and that urban areas were growing at an annual rate of 0.47%. The estimated population of Podgorica in 2003 was 136,500 for the city proper and around 170,000 for the municipality.
The following information on migration pertains to the union of Serbia and Montenegro, prior to the 2006 independence of Montenegro. During the 1960s and 1970s, many Serbs fled from the Yugoslav Socialist Federal Republic, seeking political and economic freedom. The breakup of the Yugoslav SFR in the early 1990s and the ethnic hostilities that came in its aftermath resulted in enormous migrations to and from its various former republics. During the first half of 1999, the situation of refugees and internally displaced people deteriorated even further. As of 30 June 1999, the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) reported 508,000 refugees from Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia; 770,000 returnees to Kosovo, as well as 500,000 affected remained; 220,000 Serb, Montenegrin, and Roma internally displaced persons from Kosovo in the rest of former Yugoslavia. The total number of migrants in 2000 was 626,000. By the end of 2004, these numbers were still rising; UNHCR reported a total of 627,476 persons of concern. There were 276,683 refugees, 180,117 Croatians, and over 95,000 from Bosnia and Herzegovina. In addition, in that same year there were 248,154 internally displaced persons, 85,000 local residents at risk, and 8,143 returned refugees (primarily to Croatia), and another 9,456 refugees returning to their place of origin during the year. In 2004, over 204,000 Serbs and Montenegrins were refugees in Germany, the United Kingdom, Sweden, Switzerland, Canada, France, and Australia. Also, in that same year over 29,000 Serbs and Montenegrins sought asylum in 18 countries primarily in Europe, and in the United Kingdom and the United States.
In 2005 the net migration rate was an estimated -1.3 migrants per 1,000 population, down from 3.9 migrants per 1,000 in 1990. The government views the migration levels as too high. Worker remittances in 2003 amounted to $2.7 billion.
According to a 2003 census, 43.16% of the population of Montenegro are Montenegrins, 32% Serbs, 7.77% Bosniaks, 5.03% ethnic Albanians, 4% other Muslim Slavs, 1.1% Croatians, 0.42% Roma, and 6.56% other population.
Serbian is the principal language of the population; Albanian accounts for a small minority. There is some disagreement regarding the Montenegrin dialect of Serbian: some Montenegrins claim it as a separate language.
The ancestors of the Serbs converted to Christianity in the 9th century and sided with Eastern Orthodoxy after the Great Schism of 1054 that split Christendom between the Eastern and Roman Churches. Islam came to the area from the Ottoman Turks in the 15th century.
About 74% of the total population are Serbian Orthodox; the Montenegrin Orthodox Church also exists but is canonically unrecognized. Muslims account for 17.74% of the population, with smaller numbers of Roman Catholics and Protestants. Protestant denominations include Baptists, Adventists, Reformed Christians, Evangelical Christians, Evangelical Methodists, Jehovah's Witnesses, the Church of Christ, Mormons, and Pentecostals. There is a small Jewish community in the country.
The Belgrade-Bar rail line links Serbia to Montenegro and terminates at the Adriatic Sea. Other major rail lines in Montenegro are Podgorica-Niksic and Podgorica-Skandar (Albania). Rail service is provided by locomotives manufactured in the 1950s and 1960s. The total length of standard-gauge tracks is 250 km (155.35 mi), most of which are electrified.
Two main roads in Montenegro are the Adriatic highway from Igalo to Ulcinj, and the system Petrovac to Podgorica-KolasinBijelo Polje near the Serbian border connecting northern and southern Montenegro. There are 5,227 km (3,248 mi) of roads in Montenegro, of which 1,729 km (1,074.4 mi) are highways and regional roads, while the rest are local.
Important ports are Bar, Kotor, and Zelenika. Montenegro has a fleet of more than 40 ships, with a total carrying capacity of 1,000,000 metric tons. The port of Bar is equipped to handle around 5 million metric tons of cargo per year.
There were five airports in Montenegro in 2004, the major two being Podgorica and Tivat. Montenegro Airlines provides domestic and international service..
Montenegro's early history is as part of the medieval development of Serbia, known as Duklja or Zeta, north of Lake Scutari (Skadarsko). The Serbs, one of the large family of Slavic nations, first began settling in the Balkans around the 7th century in the areas now known as Bosnia, Kosovo, and Montenegro, straddling the line that since ad 395 had divided the Eastern and Western halves of the Roman Empire.
Tracing the origins of the Serbs (and Croats) has fueled many debates among historians, but there seems to be a consensus on their Sarmatian (Iranian) origin. Having assimilated into the Slavic tribes, the Serbs migrated with them west into central Europe (White Serbia) in the Saxony area and from there moved to the Balkans around ad 626 upon an invitation by the Byzantine emperor Heraclius to assist him in repelling the Avar and Persian attack on Constantinople. Having settled in the Balkan area the Serbs organized several principalities of their own, made up of a number of clans headed by leaders known as zupans. Both the Byzantine Empire and the Bulgars tried to conquer them, but the Serbs were too decentralized to be conquered.
Between the 9th and 12th centuries, several Serbian principalities evolved, among them Raška in the mountainous north of Montenegro and southern Serbia, and Zeta (south Montenegro along the Adriatic coast), whose ruler Mihajlo (Michael) was anointed king by Pope Gregory VII in 1077.
In the late 10th century the Bulgarian khan (leader) Samuilo extended his control over Bosnia, Raška, and Zeta, north to the Sava River, and south over Macedonia. Raška became the area from where the medieval Serbian empire developed. Stephen Nemanja, grand zupan of Raška, fought against the Byzantines in ad 1169, and added Zeta to his domain in 1186. He built several Serbian monasteries, including Hilandar on Mount Athos. His son, Rastko, became a monk (Sava) and the first Serbian archbishop of the new Serbian Autocephalous Church in 1219. The second son, Stephen, received his crown from Pope Innocent IV in 1202. Stephen developed political alliances that, following his death in 1227, allowed Serbia to resist the pressure from Bulgaria and, internally, keep control over subordinate zupans. Archbishop Sava (later Saint Sava) preferred the Byzantine Church and utilized the Orthodox religion in his nation-building effort. He began by establishing numerous Serbian-Orthodox monasteries around Serbia. He also succeeded in turning Zeta from Catholicism to Serbian Orthodoxy.
The medieval Serbian empire, under Stephen Dušan the Mighty (1331–55) extended from the Aegean Sea to the Danube (Belgrade), along the Adriatic and Ionian coasts from the Neretva River to the Gulf of Corinth and controlled, aside from the central Serbian lands, Macedonia, Thessaly, the Epirus, and Albania. The Serbian Church obtained its own patriarchate, with its center in Peć. Serbia became an exporting land with abundant crops and minerals. Dušan, who was crowned tsar of "the Serbs and Greeks" in 1346, gave Serbia its first code of laws based on a combination of Serbian customs and Byzantine law. His attempt to conquer the throne of Byzantium failed, however, when the Byzantines called on the advancing Ottoman Turks for help in 1345. Even though Dušan withstood the attacks from the Turks twice (in 1345 and 1349), the gates to Europe had been opened, and the Ottoman Turks had initiated their campaign to subjugate the Balkans.
Dušan's heirs could not hold his empire together against the Turks and the Nemanja dynasty ended with the death of his son Stephen Uroš in 1371, the same year his brothers Vukašin and Ivan Ugleš were killed at the battle of Marica. The defeat of the Serbs at Kosovo Polje in 1389 in an epochal battle that took the lives of both Sultan Murad I and Serbian prince Lazar left Serbia open to further Turkish conquest. Following a series of wars, the Turks succeeded in overtaking Constantinople in 1453 and all of Serbia by 1459. For the next three-and-a-half centuries, Serbs and others had to learn how to survive under Ottoman rule.
The Turks did not make any distinctions based on ethnicity, but only on religion. Turkish Muslims were the dominant class while Christians and Jews were subordinated. While maintaining their religious and cultural autonomy, the non-Turks developed most of the nonmilitary administrative professions and carried on most of the economic activities, including internal trade and trade with other countries of the Christian world. There was no regular conscription of non-Turks into the sultan's armies, but non-Turks were taxed to pay for defense. Christian boys between the age of eight and twenty were forcibly taken from their families to be converted to Islam and trained as "Janissaries" or government administrators. Some these former Christians became administrators and even became grand viziers (advisers) to sultans.
Urban dwellers under Ottoman rule, involved in crafts, trade, and the professions, fared much better than the Christian peasantry, who were forced into serfdom. Heavy regular taxes were levied on the peasants, with corruption making the load so unbearable that the peasants rebelled.
Two distinct cultures lived side by side—Turkish Muslim in cities and towns as administrative centers and Christian Orthodox in the countryside. The numerous Serbian monasteries built around the country since the Nemanja dynasty became the supportive network for Serbian survival. The Serbian Church was subjected after 1459 to the Greek patriarchate for about a century until a Serbian patriarchate emerged again. The Serbian patriarchate covered a large area from north of Ohrid to the Hungarian lands north of the Danube and west through Bosnia.
Montenegro was subjected to continuous fighting for 400 years, from the mid-1400s to the mid-1800s. Living in a very harsh mountain territory, the Montenegrins were natural and fierce fighters, and not even the large Turkish armies could conquer them. Until 1851, Montenegro was ruled by bishops. The bishops' role strengthened the Montenegrins' loyalty to the Orthodox Church and prevented their conversion to Islam, except in the lowlands and coastal areas occupied by the Turks. In 1696, Danilo Petrović Njegoš (1696–1737) was elected Vladika (bishop), and his dynastic family ruled Montenegro until its unification with Serbia into the first Yugoslavia.
The Montenegro area was an almost impregnable mountain fortress with some limited access from the Adriatic coast where the Turks had taken hold. In 1714 the Turks were able to occupy the capital of Cetinje, but they could not sustain their hold because of difficulties in getting supplies and constant guerrilla attacks by the Montenegrins.
Meanwhile, Peter the Great of Russia had recognized Montenegro's independence in 1715, viewing it as an allied Orthodox country valuable in his struggle against the Ottoman Empire. Having gained a greatly supportive ally in Russia, Danilo was successful in opposing the Turks with occasional support from Venice until his death in 1737. His successors had to struggle with the blood feuds among key Montenegrin families. Peter I (1782–1830) was able to bring together the feuding factions, reorganize his administration, issue the first Montenegrin Code of Laws in 1798, and defeat the Turks in 1799. Peter also obtained from the Turks a formal recognition of Montenegro's independence. During the Napoleonic wars, Montenegro, Russia's ally, fought the French over Dubrovnik and, in 1806, occupied the Gulf of Kotor, thus gaining access to the Adriatic sea. But Montenegro had to relinquish Kotor to Austria following the Congress of Vienna decisions in 1814–15.
Peter I died in 1830, having repelled again Turkish attacks in 1819–21 and 1828–29. Peter II, considered by many to be the greatest Serbian poet, established a senate of 12 members and centralized his authority by abolishing the office of civil governor, which had existed since 1516. However, his successor, Danilo II (1851–60), effected a radical change by proclaiming himself hereditary prince in 1852. Danilo II introduced a new legal code in 1855 that guaranteed civil and religious freedoms based on the constitution of 1852. Danilo died in 1860 of a wound inflicted by an exiled Montenegrin rebel.
Danilo's nephew Nicholas took over as the last independent ruler of Montenegro from 1860 until the 1918 unification with Serbia and the first Yugoslavia. During his 58-year reign Nicholas gained the nickname of "Father-in-Law of Europe" by marrying six daughters into Italian, Russian, Serbian, and German royal families. Through a series of wars with Turkey (1862, 1876, 1912, and 1913), Nicholas succeeded in more than doubling Montenegro's territory. Following the 1913 Balkan War, Montenegro and Serbia divided the Sandžak area and became neighbor states, both primarily populated by Serbs. Montenegro also gained access to the Adriatic Sea south of Lake Scutari (Skadar), which was divided in 1913 between Montenegro and the newly formed Albanian state.
Between 1880 and 1912, Montenegro took advantage of an era of relative peace to develop roads, education, agriculture, postal services, and banks, mostly with foreign investment especially from Italy, whose queen was Nicholas's daughter Elena.
The first Montenegrin parliament met in 1905, with 62 elected and 14 ex officio members. Following the successful Balkan wars, Serbian-Montenegrin relations grew closer, and by 1914, the two Serbian kingdoms proposed a union in which they would share their armed forces, foreign policy, and customs while maintaining their separate royal dynasties. World War I (1913–18) interrupted this process. Montenegro's poor defense led to Austrian occupation for the better part of the war; thus Montenegro ceased to officially participate in the war.
A Montenegrin Committee for National Union was formed by exiles in Paris who supported the 20 July 1917 Corfu Declaration on the establishment of a Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes. The Montenegrin Committee felt the time had come to unite with the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes. King Nicholas opposed such a move and was deposed. On 24 November 1918, a resolution was passed in favor of Montenegro's union with the Kingdom of Serbia. Thus, Montenegro became part of the first Yugoslavia on 1 December 1918. Montenegrins participated very actively in political life, mostly supporting the centralist Serbian positions.
During World War II (1939–45), Italy controlled Montenegro and attempted unsuccessfully to revive the old kingdom. In the post-World War II Socialist Federative Yugoslavia, Tito reestablished Montenegro as a separate republic due to strong Montenegrin representation in the circle of his closest collaborators. Most Montenegrins took the side of the Serbian centralists against the liberal elements in the League of Communists and, in the late 1980s and early 1990s, supported Slobodan Milošević. With the demise of Yugoslavia, Montenegro joined Serbia in forming the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.
On 14 March 2002, under mediation by the European Union (EU), Serbia and Montenegro agreed to form a new federal union, called Serbia and Montenegro. Montenegro's prime minister, Milo Djukanovic, was reluctant to sign the agreement, being the leader of the drive for independence of Montenegro's population of 660,000. However, the union of Serbia and Montenegro came into existence in 2003. The constitution provided for either of the two constituent republics to vote for independence in three years (2006). In February 2005, officials from Montenegro asked their Serbian counterparts for an early secession of the two republics claiming the union was inefficient and squandered money. Serbian Prime Minister Vojislav Kostunica refused the proposal and indicated that European integration and economic development should be the main focus of Serbia and Montenegro.
A referendum on full independence for Montenegro was held on 21 May 2006. To be accepted internationally, a 55% majority was required for a "yes" vote to the question: "Do you want the Republic of Montenegro to be an independent state with full international and legal subjectivity?" The Montenegrin diaspora had the right to vote, with the exception of Montenegrins living in Serbia, who were barred from voting in the referendum. The vote on independence was 55.5% in favor. Voter turnout was 86.3%. A demand by pro-Serbian unionist parties for a recount was rejected. Serb politicians, Orthodox church leaders, and Montenegrins from the mountainous inland regions bordering Serbia opposed secession. However, ethnic Montenegrins and Albanians from the coastal area favored independence. Serbian President Boris Tadic recognized the independence of Montenegro. Serbia became the successor state to the union of Serbia and Montenegro, inheriting its seat in the United Nations (UN) and seats in other international institutions: Montenegro will have to apply for UN and EU membership on its own once it has been granted recognition by other states. Serbia's ambition to join the EU has been hampered by its failure to arrest key war crimes suspects, including Ratko Mladic. Serbia inherits legal claim to the UN-administered province of Kosovo.
Montenegro's independence cuts Serbia off from the sea; therefore, the two nations will need to cooperate on sharing the former union's assets. Montenegrins may be given favorable treatment to use Serbia's hospitals, universities, and other public services. The substantial pro-union minority in Montenegro will also strengthen Serbia's hand in creating a smooth transition to independence. The pro-union bloc in the referendum was led by the Socialist People's Party (SNP), headed by Predrag Bulatovic. National elections were due to be held in autumn 2006.
Prior to Montenegro's independence in 2006, a constitutional charter for the state of Serbia and Montenegro was ratified by both parliaments in January 2003, and the constitution for the unified state was approved on 4 February 2003. The constitution allowed the member republics to hold independence referendums in 2006, which Montenegro did. Following the yes vote on independence in mid-2006, Montenegro was engaged in forming a new government.
As a constituent state of the union of Serbia and Montenegro, Montenegro had a republican form of government. Representatives in Montenegro's Assembly (parliament) hold office for four years. The Assembly enacted laws, passed the budget, appointed the president and members of the cabinet, the president and justices of the Constitutional Court, and the judges of all courts of law. The Assembly may pass a vote of no-confidence on the government by a vote of its members.
The president of Montenegro proposes candidates to the Assembly for prime minister, as well as for the president and justices of the Constitutional Court; grants pardons; proposes the holding of referenda; and represents the country at home and abroad.
Elections for Montenegro's parliament were held on 21 October 2002. Eleven parties were represented: the Democratic Party of Socialists of Montenegro (DPS), 30 seats; Social Democratic Party of Montenegro (SDP), 5; Civic Party of Montenegro, 1; non-partisans, 2; Socialist People's Party of Montenegro, 19; Serbian People's Party of Montenegro, 6; People's Party of Montenegro, 5; Liberal Alliance of Montenegro, 4; Democratic Union of Albanians, 1; and the Democratic League of Montenegro, 1. The government coalition was comprised of the DPS, SDP, Civic Party, and non-partisans.
On 11 May 2003, Filip Vujanović of the DPS was elected president with 63.3% of the vote. Voter turnout was 48.5%. As of 2006, Milo Dukanović was serving as prime minister.
Montenegro has 21 municipalities (opština).
The republic of Montenegro followed the system of separation of powers: the judicial, legislative, and executive branches are independent of one another. The judiciary is autonomous and independent. The Constitutional Court has the power of judicial review. Appointments to the judiciary are for life.
The following information on armed forces pertains to the union of Serbia and Montenegro and was reported prior to June 2006, when Montenegrins approved an independence referendum. Active armed forces numbered approximately 65,300 in 2005, supported by 250,000 reservists. The Army had 55,000 active personnel and was equipped with 962 main battle tanks, 525 armored infantry fighting vehicles, 288 armored personnel carriers and 2,729 artillery pieces. The Navy had 3,800 active personnel, including 900 Marines. Major naval units included eight tactical submarines, three frigates, 31 patrol/coastal vessels, 10 mine warfare ships, 23 amphibious landing craft, and seven logistical/support vessels. The Air Force had 6,500 active members, along with 101 combat capable aircraft, including 39 fighters, 51 fighter ground attack aircraft and 17 armed helicopters. There was also a paramilitary force that consisted of 45,100 personnel, of which an estimated 4,100 made up special police units, 35,000 were Ministry of Interior personnel and an estimated 6,000 were Montenegrin Ministry of Interior Personnel. Sixteen military personnel were stationed in four African countries under UN command. In addition, military contingents from 45 countries were stationed in Serbia and Montenegro as part of the Kosovo Peace Implementation Force. The defense budget in 2005 totaled $706 million.
The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was an original member of the United Nations (1945) until its dissolution and the establishment of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Slovenia, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia as new states. The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was admitted to the United Nations on 1 November 2000. Following the adoption and promulgation of the Constitutional Charter of Serbia and Montenegro on 4 February 2003, the name of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was changed to Serbia and Montenegro. Serbia and Montenegro participated in several nonregional specialized UN agencies, such as the FAO, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, the World Bank, IAEA, and the WHO.
Serbia and Montenegro was a member of the Council of Europe, the Black Sea Economic Cooperation Zone, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, and the OSCE. It had observer status in the OAS and the WTO. In environmental cooperation, the country was part of Basel Convention, Ramsar, the London Convention, the Montréal Protocol, and the UN Conventions on the Law of the Sea and Climate Change.
Serbia is recognized as the successor state to the former union of Serbia and Montenegro. Montenegro will have to apply for membership in the UN and other international bodies.
During the UN economic sanctions that lasted from 1992 to 1995, economic activity in the former Yugoslavia was extremely limited. By 1994, hyperinflation had brought formal economic activity to a virtual halt. By 1996, GDP had fallen to only 50.8% of 1990s total. Industry declined to just 46.6% of 1990s output; agriculture, 94.4%; construction, 37.5%; transportation, 29.3%; trade, 60.6%; and services, 81.1%. Formal lifting of these sanctions occurred in October 1996. However, the United States sponsored an "Outer Wall" of sanctions, which prevented Yugoslavia from joining international organizations and financial institutions. Taken together, the "Outer Wall," the Kosovo war, and continuing corruption continue to stifle Yugoslav economic development. In October 2000, the coalition government began implementation of stabilization and market-reform measures. Real growth in 2000 was reported as 5%. A donors' conference in June 2001 raised $1.3 billion in pledges for help in infrastructural rebuilding. Real GDP in 2001 was 5.5% and an estimated 4% in 2002.
Economic output was positive, but volatile after 2002, dropping to 2.1% in 2003 and jumping to 8% in 2004; in 2005 the GDP growth rate in Serbia and Montenegro was estimated at 4%.
In Montenegro, inflation fell from 7.5% in 2003 to 5% in 2004. The financial sector showed marked improvement. Economic reforms launched in 2003, driven by the goal of EU integration, had not yet led to markedly higher levels of growth or reduced unemployment by 2006. In 2003, the absolute poverty rate was recorded at 12.2%, with more than a third of the population classified as economically vulnerable.
The following information on income pertains to the union of Serbia and Montenegro, prior to Montenegro's independence in 2006. The CIA defines GDP as the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year and computed on the basis of purchasing power parity (PPP) rather than value as measured on the basis of the rate of exchange based on current dollars. In 2005, the per capita GDP for Serbia and Montenegro was estimated at $2,700. The annual growth rate of GDP was estimated at 5%. It was estimated that agriculture accounted for 16.6% of GDP, industry 25.5%, and services 57.9%.
According to the World Bank, in 2003 remittances from citizens working abroad totaled $1.397 billion or about $172 per capita and accounted for approximately 6.8% of GDP. Foreign aid receipts amounted to $1,317 million or about $163 per capita and accounted for approximately 6.4% of the gross national income (GNI).
The World Bank reports that in 2003 household consumption in Serbia and Montenegro totaled $18.27 billion or about $2,246 per capita based on a GDP of $20.7 billion, measured in current dollars rather than PPP. Household consumption includes expenditures of individuals, households, and nongovernmental organizations on goods and services, excluding purchases of dwellings.
The following information on labor pertains to the union of Serbia and Montenegro, prior to Montenegro's independence in 2006. The labor force in Serbia and Montenegro was estimated at 3.22 million in 2005. The unemployment rate in 2005 was estimated at 31.6%, with Kosovo's unemployment at around 50%. There was no data available as to the occupational breakdown of the country's workforce.
With the exception of the military, all workers are entitled to form unions. However, the majority of unions are government-sponsored or affiliated: independent unions are rare. Therefore, unions have not been effective in improving work conditions or wage structure increases. Virtually all of the workers in the formal economy are union members. Strikes are permitted and are utilized especially to collect unpaid wages. Collective bargaining is still at rudimentary level.
The minimum employment age is 16 although younger children frequently work on family farms. As of 2005, there was no national minimum wage rate. On average, the full-time monthly wage in the public sector that year was $181, while the average wage in the private sector was $250. Neither wage rate offered a decent living wage for a family. The official workweek was set at 40 hours, with required rest periods and overtime limited to 20 hours per week or 40 hours per month. Health and safety standards are not a priority due to harsh economic circumstances.
In addition to honey and high-quality wines (Vranac, Krstac, among others), Montenegro produces many vegetables (tomatoes, peppers, cucumbers) and fruits (plums, apples, grapes, citrus fruits, and olives). Other crops include blueberries, edible mushrooms, and wild sage.
Serbia and Montenegro had 3,717,000 hectares (9,160,000 acres) of arable land in 2003. Serbia historically accounted for 60% of agricultural production. Vojvodina is the major agricultural region.
In 2000, 20% of the labor force was engaged in agriculture. Between 1991 and 1996, total agricultural production in the former Yugoslavia declined by 10%. During that time, production of farm crops fell by 9%; cereals by 12%. Viticultural production, however, increased by 51%. However, by 1999, total agricultural output was at 92% of the average during 1989–91. During 2002–04, crop production was 10% higher than during 1999–2001.
Agriculture contributed an estimated 17% to GDP in 2002. Major crops produced in 2004 in Serbia and Montenegro included (in thousands of tons): corn, 6,287; wheat, 2,746; sugar beets, 2,643; potatoes, 1,098; and grapes, 490.
The following information on animal husbandry pertains to the union of Serbia and Montenegro, prior to Montenegro's independence in 2006. In 2005, the livestock population included 3,550,000 pigs and hogs, 1,796,600 sheep, 1,230,000 head of cattle, 182,000 goats, 40,000 horses, and 17,464,000 poultry. Total meat production that year was 848,240 tons; milk, 1,852,000 tons. Between 1990 and 1999, total livestock production increased by 1.8%, but during 2002–04 it fell by 5.4% from 1999–2001.
In Serbia and Montenegro, the total catch in 2003 was 3,665 tons, 86% from inland waters. Common carp accounts for much of the inland catch.
Forests and woodlands cover 720,000 ha (1,779,192 acres) in Montenegro, accounting for 54% of the total surface area of the republic. Of this figure, the major part (572,000 ha (1,413,469 acres) is in the northern region of the country. Total roundwood production in Serbia and Montenegro in 2004 was 3,520,000 cu m (124.3 billion cu ft), of which about 75% came from public forests. Sawnwood production amounted to 575,000 cu m (20.3 million cu ft); plywood and particle board, 59,000 cu m (2.1 million cu ft). In 2004, exports of forest products in Serbia and Montenegro amounted to nearly $139.1 million; imports, $352.9 million.
The following information on mining pertains to the union of Serbia and Montenegro prior to Montenegro's independence in 2006. In 2003 industrial production in Serbia and Montenegro fell by 3% compared to 2002, although mining and quarrying operations reported a 1% increase from 2002. Aggregated production from the metals mining sector in 2003 fell by 33% from the previous year, although the output of basic metals increased by 2%. The country also confronted continuing economic sanctions and the loss of control of Kosovo, with its ores and production facilities for nickel, lead, zinc, coal, lignite, ferronickel, and tin-plate. In light of this, Serbia and Montenegro's gross domestic product (GDP) was officially reported to have increased by 3% in 2003. The country had significant capacities to produce refined aluminum, lead, silver, and zinc. In 2003, the output of bauxite fell by about 12% from 2002, although aluminum output remained at around 2002 levels. Although exports of primary aluminum and aluminum alloys in 2002 grew by 18% over 2001, data for 2003 indicated a steep drop in those exports. Mining in Serbia dates back to the Middle Ages, when silver, gold, and lead were extracted. Yugoslavia's bauxite mining, alumina-refining, and aluminum-smelting industries were located primarily in Montenegro, which was accorded favorable treatment by the European Commission.
Mine output of metals in 2003 were: lead ore (gross weight), 183,000 metric tons, down from 733,000 metric tons in 2000 and 284,000 metric tons in 2002; bauxite (gross weight), 540,000 metric tons, down from 612,000 metric tons in 2002 and from 630,000 metric tons in 2000; agglomerate iron ore and concentrate saw no recorded production from 2001 through 2003; and copper ore (gross weight), 5,710,000 tons, down from 12.896,000 tons in 2000 and from 7,968,000 tons in 2002. Production of silver in 2003 totaled 2,028 kg, down from 6,838 kg in 2002. Output of refined gold in 2003 was estimated at 600 kg, down from 900 kg in 2002. In 2003, the country also produced alumina, magnesium, palladium, platinum, and selenium. Among the industrial minerals produced were asbestos, bentonite, ceramic clay, fire clay, feldspar, pumice, lime, magnesite, mica, kaolin, gypsum, quartz sand, salt, nitrogen, caustic soda, sodium sulfate, sand and gravel, and stone.
According to Montenegrin government sources, three power plants—the Perucica and Piva hydroelectric plants and the Pljevlja thermoelectric plant—produce approximately 3 billion kWh per year. Montenegro has the capacity to produce 2,700,000 metric tons of coal.
Industry was the primary engine of economic development in Montenegro in the second half of the 20th century. During that period, the growth of the power and energy sector, metallurgy (steel and aluminum), and transportation infrastructure formed the basis for overall economic growth and development. Approximately 90% of Montenegro's industrial products were marketed outside the republic.
By the early 2000s, Montenegro had facilities for producing 400,000 metric tons of crude steel; 1,000,000 metric tons of bauxite; 280,000 metric tons of alumina; 100,000 metric tons of aluminum; and 75,000 metric tons of sea salt.
Industries in Montenegro include metal processing, engineering, wood-processing, textile manufacture, chemicals, leather and footwear, apparel, household appliances, construction, and machinery.
Montenegro processes and finishes agricultural products. The country has fish-processing plants, flour mills, dairies, slaughterhouses, bakeries, breweries, juice factories, fruit processing factories, grape processing plants and wine cellars, medicinal herb processing plants, tobacco and cigarette factories, and confectioners, among other industries.
By 2006, the industrial sector was in poor shape due to the lingering effects of war and isolation in the former Yugoslavia. Montenegro was expected to seek foreign investment to modernize its industries to enable it to become competitive in world markets.
Scientific and technological policies are developed and implemented by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Montenegro. There are 13 registered research institutions in Montenegro and one university (the University of Montenegro, located in Podgorica).
Podgorica serves as the economic and commercial center of the country. The domestic economy has been held back for the past few years due to the lack of major privatization reforms and trouble in the general European economy. Hours of business are usually 8 am to 4 pm, Monday to Friday.
The following information on foreign trade pertains to the union of Serbia and Montenegro prior to Montenegro's independence in 2006. The UN imposed sanctions on international trade with Yugoslavia in May 1992 and lifted them in December 1995. During the war, when sanctions were in force, dozens of Cypriot companies, set up by senior Serbian officials and businessmen, trafficked millions of dollars in illegal trade.
Trade started to catch up in subsequent years, and in 2004 exports reached $3.2 billion (FOB—Free on Board). In the same year, imports were almost triple, at $9.5 billion (FOB), indicating that the economy in the two republics was in disarray, but that it was trying to redress itself through a renewal of its industrial base. Most of the import commodities included machinery and transport equipment, fuels and lubricants, manufactured goods, chemicals, food and live animals, and raw materials. The imports mainly came from Germany (18.5%), Italy (16.5%), Austria (8.3%), Slovenia (6.7%), Bulgaria (4.7%), and France (4.5%). Exports included manufactured goods, food and live animals, and raw materials, and largely went to Italy (which receive 29% of total exports), Germany (16.6%), Austria (7%), Greece (6.7%), France (4.9%), and Slovenia (4.1%).
Montenegro, both as its own republic and as a constituent republic of Serbia and Montenegro until mid-2006, maintained a relatively high current account deficit. For Serbia and Montenegro, exports of goods and services totaled $5.9 billion in 2004, up from $4.2 billion in 2003. Imports grew from $8.7 billion in 2003, to $12.8 billion in 2004. Consequently, the resource balance was on a negative upsurge, growing from -$4.5 billion in 2003, to -$7.1 billion in 2004. A similar trend was registered for the current account balance, which deteriorated from -$2.0 billion in 2003, to -$3.1 billion in 2004. The national reserves of Serbia and Montenegro (including gold) were $3.6 billion in 2003, covering less than 6 months of imports; by 2004, they increased to $4.3 billion.
Montenegro has its own independent central bank. There were 10 licensed banks in Montenegro in 2005. Montenegro's last bank with direct government majority ownership was being privatized in 2006.
Insurance of public transport passengers, motor vehicle insurance, aircraft insurance, and insurance on bank deposits are compulsory. In 2003, the value of all direct insurance premiums written in Serbia and Montenegro totaled $436 million, of which nonlife premiums accounted for $420 million. In that same year, the top nonlife insurer was Dunav, which had gross written nonlife premiums of $138.6 million, while the country's leading life insurer was Zepter, which had gross written life insurance premiums of $7.1 million.
As of mid-2006, Montenegro had voted to become an independent nation; statistics on the new country's revenue and expenditures were not available.
The US Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) estimated that in 2005 Serbia and Montenegro's central government took in revenues of approximately $11.4 billion and had expenditures of $11.1 billion. Revenues minus expenditures totaled approximately $330 million. Public debt in 2005 amounted to 53.1% of GDP. Total external debt was $15.43 billion.
Montenegro's top income tax rate is 22%. It has a flat corporate tax rate of 9%.
Montenegro has an average customs rate of 3–5%, with a 20% rate applied to seasonal fruits and vegetables. Montenegro applies a 17% value-added tax (VAT) on all products, with water, bread, milk, fat, oil, sugar and medicines exempt. Montenegro imposes excise taxes on certain luxury goods.
Montenegro has only one authorized free trade zone (FTZ) that has yet to become operational.
Foreign investment was severely restricted during the years of the economic embargo. Since the sanctions were lifted, foreign investors from neighboring countries, Russia, and Asia have expressed an interest in capital investment. The main sectors attracting the interest of foreign investors are metal manufacturing and machinery, infrastructure improvement, agriculture and food processing, and chemicals and pharmaceuticals. Foreign investors may hold majority shares in companies.
In 1997, foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows into the former Yugoslavia reached $740 million, but dried up with the onset of the conflict in Kosovo. FDI inflows averaged $122.5 million in 1998 and 1999, then fell to $25 million in 2000. In 2001, FDI inflow reached $125 million.
In the following years, Serbia and Montenegro undertook an aggressive program of reforms aimed at both reestablishing the area as a major transportation hub, and at attracting foreign investment. These policies seem to have paid off as in 2004, capital inflows jumped to $3.4 billion. While Serbia and Montenegro was considered to be a risky place for doing business, the political and economic climate was steadily improving as of 2005. Montenegro both before and after independence placed a great deal of importance upon attracting new foreign investment; such economic development will help make the case for Montenegro's possible entry into the European Union (EU).
Officials in general see revitalization of the infrastructure (roads, rail and air transport, telecommunications, and power production) as one step toward economic recovery. Another important aspect of economic reconstruction will be the revival of former export industry, such as agriculture, textiles, furniture, pharmaceuticals, and nonferrous metallic ores.
In 2002, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) approved a three-year $829 million Extended Arrangement to support economic programs in Serbia and Montenegro (which was known as Yugoslavia at the time) 2002–05.
While politically and economically Montenegro is much more stable than in previous years, the economy is still in a quasi-state of disarray, with high unemployment, a large gray market, and a relapsing industrial base. Foreign investors, as well as several international financial institutions (EBRD, IMF, and the World Bank), appreciated recent economic developments in Montenegro as being positive, and in 2004 increased their capital transfers to the region.
The economy is expected to grow moderately in 2006, as a result of a boom in several sectors: trade, financial services and transport and communications. The growth is to be sustained by continued investment in newly privatized companies, by strong local demand, and by an expansion of the services sector. Montenegro has privatized most major industries other than electricity. By 2005, approximately 65% of state-owned companies had been sold off and only 25% of banking assets remained in state or social ownership.
The US Agency for International Development (USAID) remains the primary foreign aid donor in Montenegro. The European Agency for Reconstruction (EAR), Germany, and the United Kingdom have smaller budgets and, like USAID, work in the areas of economic policy reform and enterprise development, among other programs such as civil society, independent media development, and the rule of law. The International Finance Corporation (IFC) focuses on small and medium enterprise development. The World Bank and EBRD focus on economic growth and infrastructure investments. The UN Development Program (UNDP), with funding from EAR, Germany, Canada, and the Netherlands, works in the environment, enterprise development, and civil society development areas. Montenegro has implemented an Economic Reform Agenda.
A social insurance system for Serbia and Montenegro, updated in 2003, provides old age, disability, and survivorship benefits. The pension plan is funded by contributions from both employers and employees. The retirement varies depending on years of insurance; retirement from insured employment is necessary. Montenegro provides its own system for sickness and maternity benefits. Medical services are provided directly to patients through government facilities. Workers' compensation, unemployment benefits, and family allowances are also available. Family allowances vary according to the number of children in the family are adjusted periodically for cost of living changes.
Traditional gender roles keep women from enjoying equal status with men and few occupy positions of leadership in the private sector. However, women are active in human rights and political organizations. High levels of domestic abuse persist and social pressures prevent women from obtaining protection against abusers.
The government provides obligatory health care to citizens for preventive, diagnostic, therapeutic, and rehabilitative services. In the union of Serbia and Montenegro, there were approximately 228 health institutions and about 3,000 other clinics, mostly private, in 2005. As of 2004, there were an estimated 20 physicians per 100,000 people.
In 2005 infant mortality in Serbia and Montenegro was reported at 15.53 per 1,000 live births. Overall mortality was 7.4 per 1,000 people in Montenegro. Average life expectancy in 2005 for Serbia and Montenegro was 74.73 years.
The HIV/AIDS prevalence was 0.20 per 100 adults in 2003. As of 2004, there were approximately 10,000 people living with HIV/AIDS in Serbia and Montenegro. There were an estimated 100 deaths from AIDS in 2003.
At the beginning of 1996, there were 3,124,000 dwellings in Serbia and Montenegro, with an average of 3.4 persons per dwelling. Housing area at that time averaged 20 sq m (215 sq ft) per person. New housing completions during 1995 totaled 14,337 units, of which 11,847 were in the public sector, and 2,490 were in the private sector. In 2002, Serbia and Montenegro counted about 2,790,411 households with an average of 2.89 people per household.
As of 2005/06, education is compulsory for nine years of primary school. This may be followed by three years of secondary school, with students having the option to attend general, vocational, or art schools. The academic year runs from October to July. In 2001, about 43% of children between the ages of three and six were enrolled in some type of preschool program in the union of Serbia and Montenegro. Primary school enrollment in 2001 was estimated at about 96% of age-eligible students. The same year, secondary school enrollment was about 82% of age-eligible students. It is estimated that about 96% of all students complete their primary education. The student-to-teacher ratio for primary school was at about 20:1 in 2000; the ratio for secondary school was about 14:1. In Montenegro, elementary and secondary schools are managed by school boards, while principals are responsible for day-to-day administration. School boards and principals are appointed by the Ministry of Education and Science for four-year terms. Teachers must have a university degree and pass a professional (state) examination.
Montenegro has one university with 15 faculties. In 2001, it was estimated that about 36% of the tertiary age population were enrolled in tertiary education programs. The adult literacy rate for 2004 was estimated at about 96.4%.
As of 2003, public expenditure on education for the union of Serbia and Montenegro was estimated at 3.3% of GDP.
The Central National Library of Montenegro has 1.5 million volumes.
Serbia and Montenegro prior to Montenegro's independence had over 2,500 cultural monuments, including about 100 museums and 37 historical archives libraries.
Culturally, Montenegro has been shaped by Mediterranean, middle European, Eastern European, and Asian civilizations. Archaeological treasures include Crvena Stijena (Red Rock), Bioce okapine (shelters) in the Moraca Canyon, and Malisina pecina (cave) and Medena stijena (rock) in the Cehotina Canyon.
Pre-Roman, Roman, Gothic, and Baroque architectural styles may be found. The city of Kotor is a UNESCO World Heritage site. The region of Lake Scutari (Skadarsko) has many monasteries built on goricas (small islands), including Beska, Moracnik, Starcevo, Kom, and Vranjina, along with the fortresses of Zabljak and Lesendro.
Islamic culture is evidenced in the Mosque of Husein-pasha Boljanic in Pljevlja, as well as in residential architecture (such as the Redzepagics' Manor in Plav).
Montenegro has a long literary and printing history, beginning in the 12th century. The town of Cetinje, which features a monastery of Cetinje and museum complex and Biljarda, built by Njegos as a residence in 1838, is recognized as a cultural capital. Other buildings in Cetinje include King Nikola's Palace, numerous embassies, Prince Heir's Palace, the Zetski dom theater, and the house of parliament.
Montenegro has a rich heritage of theater, film, poetry, prose, and painting.
In 2003, there were an estimated 243 mainline telephones for every 1,000 people in Serbia and Montenegro; about 313,500 people were on a waiting list for telephone service installation. The same year, there were approximately 338 mobile phones in use for every 1,000 people.
Television stations included TV Montenegro, a state-funded company that operated two networks and a satellite channel; TV IN; Montenegrin Broadcasting Company (MBC), private; ntv Montena, private; TV Elmag, private; and TV Pink M—Montenegrin offshoot of Belgrade-based network. The following radio stations were operating: Radio Montenegro, a state-funded company that operated two networks; Radio Elmag, private; Antena M, private; and Radio D, private. The news agency MNNews-Mina is private.
The ownership and editorial positions of television and radio stations usually reflects regional politics. In 2004, Serbia and Montenegro had about 297 radios and 282 television sets for every 1,000 people. The same year, there were 27.1 personal computers for every 1,000 people and 79 of every 1,000 people had access to the Internet. There were nine secure Internet servers in the country in 2004.
In 1791, the first Serbian-language newspaper was published in Vienna, Austria. Privately owned newspapers are sometimes critical of the government. The dailies with the largest circulation in Serbia and Montenegro (as of 2002) were Politika (Politics, 300,000) and Vecernje Novosti (Evening News, 169,000). Other newspapers that are essentially controlled by the government, included (with 2002 circulation) Borba (85,000), Jedinstvo (6,090), Dnevnik (61,000), and Pobjeda (19,400). There are several minority language newspapers.
While the government provides for freedom of speech and of the press, libel suits have been fairly prevalent and some media sources have practiced self-censorship in order to avoid problems with government officials. In Montenegro press freedom is guaranteed and media laws passed in 2002 provide for the transformation of state-funded broadcasting company into a public broadcaster. But some media watchdogs have pointed to ongoing political influence over editorial policies. In 2004, the killing of Dusko Jovanovic, the editor of the opposition daily newspaper Dan, sparked an outcry. Demonstrators accused the authorities of complicity.
Overseas donors and organizations have encouraged the growth of independent media outlets. But commercial operators compete for a small pool of advertising revenue. The market—with dozens of private radio and TV stations—was said to be saturated. The Montenegrin media enjoyed greater freedom than their Serbian counterparts in the last years of Slobodan Milošević's rule. Many private outlets managed to break the former state monopoly.
In Montenegro, the following media were publishing in 2005: Vijesti, private daily; Pobjeda, daily; Dan, daily; Republika, daily; and Monitor, private weekly.
The Montenegrin P.E.N. Center was founded in 1990. There are several organizations for professional journalists in Serbia and Montenegro, including the Journalists' Federation of Yugoslavia, the Journalists' Association of Serbia, Independent Journalists' Association, and the Association of Private Owners of the Media. National youth organizations include the Union of Socialist Youth of Yugoslavia, Junior Chamber, and the Youth Council of Montenegro. Scouting organizations are also active. The Child Rights Center and Child to Child are national groups working to promote the rights of children and youth. There are a variety of sports associations available promoting amateur competition among athletes of all ages. There are active chapters of the Paralympic Committee, as well as a national Olympic Committee.
There is a national chapter of the Red Cross Society.
Rich architecture, museums, galleries, cathedrals, parks, rivers, and the many beaches are just some of the attractions that bring visitors to Montenegro. Montenegro has four national parks; the largest are the Lake of Skadar (Skadarsko) Basin (40,000 hectares/98,800 acres) and Durmitor (39,000 hectares/96,300 acres). Montenegro has two UNESCO natural area and heritage sites: Mt. Durmitor and the old city of Kotor. Popular sports in Montenegro are tennis, football, volleyball, water sports, bocanje (a kind of bowling), skiing, and rafting. The Ministry of Sports of the Montenegrin government was founded in 1993. There are numerous sand and pebble beaches on the Montenegrin coastline. It is one of the warmest and sunniest tourist regions in Europe. Although classified as a Mediterranean country, Montenegro is a mountainous region in which areas of 1,000 m (3,280.8 ft) or higher comprise 60.5% of the nation's territory.
Prior to Montenegro's independence, all visitors needed a valid passport to enter Serbia and Montenegro. Serbia requires an onward/return ticket, sufficient funds for the stay, and a certificate showing funds for health care. Visas are required for all nationals except those of 41 countries including the United State, Australia, and Canada. According to 2005 US Department of State estimates, the cost of staying in the country averaged $157.
In 2003, there were 599,430 visitors to Montenegro (10.7% more than in 2002), of whom 141,787 were foreign tourists. There were 3,976,266 hotel rooms booked (7.8% more than in 2002), of which foreign visitors accounted for 915,738.
Prince Danilo II of Montenegro (r.1851–60) introduced a new legal code in 1855 that guaranteed civil and religious freedoms. King Nikola I Petrović Njegoš (1841–1921) was the only king of Montenegro, reigning as a king from 1910 to 1918 and as a prince from 1860 to 1910. He was also a poet who wrote "Onamo, 'namo," the popular anthem of Montenegro. King Alexander of Yugoslavia (1888–1934) was assassinated in Marseille, France. Prince Paul of Yugoslavia (1893–1976) ruled as a regent for Peter II (1923–70) from 1934 to 1941 and was forced into exile after signing a secret pact with the Nazi government.
Important Montenegrin poets of the 20th century include Risto Ratkovic and Radovan Ziogovic. Important prose writers include Mihailo Lalic, whose realistic novels portray Montenegro's place in World War II. Painters include Petar Lubarda, Milo Milunovic, Dado Djuric, Branko Filipovic-Filo, Vojo Stanic, and Uros Toskovic.
Montenegro has no dependencies or territories.
Bennett, Christopher. Yugoslavia's Bloody Collapse: Causes, Course and Consequences. London: Hurst and Company, 1995.
Boehm, Christopher. Blood Revenge: The Enactment and Management of Conflict in Montenegro and Other Tribal Societies. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1987.
Bokovoy, Melissa, Jill A. Irvine, and Carol S. Lilly, (ed.). State-Society Relations in Yugoslavia, 1945-1992. New York: St. Martin's, 1997.
Cohen, Lenard J. Broken Bonds: Yugoslavia's Disintegration and Balkan Politics in Transition. Boulder, Colo.: Westview, 1995.
Denitch, Bogdan Denis. Ethnic Nationalism: The Tragic Death of Yugoslavia. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1996.
Dyker, David A., and Ivan Vejvoda, (ed.). Yugoslavia and After: A Study in Fragmentation, Despair and Rebirth. New York: Longman, 1996.
Fleming, Thomas. Montenegro: The Divided Land. San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 2002.
Frucht, Richard (ed.). Eastern Europe: An Introduction to the People, Lands, and Culture. Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO, 2005.
Houston, Marco. Nikola and Milena, King and Queen of the Black Mountain: The Rise and Fall of Montenegro's Royal Family. London: Leppi Publications, 2003.
International Smoking Statistics: A Collection of Historical Data from 30 Economically Developed Countries. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.
Judah, Tim. The Serbs: History, Myth, and the Destruction of Yugoslavia. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1997.
Klemencic, Matjaz. The Former Yugoslavia's Diverse Peoples: A Reference Sourcebook. Oxford, Eng.: ABC-Clio, 2003.
Lampe, John R. Yugoslavia as History: Twice There Was a Country. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996.
Maleševic, Siniša. Ideology, Legitimacy, and the New State: Yugoslavia, Serbia, and Croatia. Portland, Ore.: Frank Cass, 2002.
Pavkovic, Aleksandar. The Fragmentation of Yugoslavia: Nationalism in a Multinational State. New York: St. Martin's, 1997.
Ramet, Sabrina P. Balkan Babel: The Disintegration of Yugoslavia from the Death of Tito to Ethnic War. Boulder, Colo.: Westview, 1996.
Schuman, Michael. Serbia and Montenegro. 2nd ed. New York: Facts On File, 2004.
Stevenson, Francis Seymour. A History of Montenegro. Boston: Adamant Media Corporation, 2002.
Terterov, Marat (ed.). Doing Business with Serbia and Montenegro. Sterling, Va.: Kogan Page, 2004.
Treadway, John D. The Falcon and the Eagle: Montenegro and Austria-Hungary, 1908-1914. West Lafayette, Ind: Purdue University Press, 1983.
West, Richard. Tito: And the Rise and Fall of Yugoslavia. New York: Carroll and Graf, 1995.
"Montenegro." Worldmark Encyclopedia of Nations. . Encyclopedia.com. (January 17, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/montenegro
"Montenegro." Worldmark Encyclopedia of Nations. . Retrieved January 17, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/montenegro
|Official Country Name:||Montenegro|
|Compulsory Schooling:||9 years|
|Educational Enrollment Rate:||Primary: 72%|
|Student-Teacher Ratio:||Primary: 22:1|
History & Background
The Republic of Montenegro (Crna Gora or "Black Mountain") is located on the Adriatic Sea in southeastern Europe. Bordered by Bosnia and Herzegovina to the northwest, Serbia to the northeast, the autonomous province of Kosovo to the east, Albania to the southeast, and the Adriatic to the southwest, Montenegro in early 2001 belonged to the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY), along with Serbia. A referendum was anticipated for the second half of 2001 or early 2002 to decide Montenegro's future status as either an independent republic or a republic within the FRY. Montenegro's roughly diamond-shaped territory measures 13,938 square kilometers, which is slightly less than the U.S. state of Connecticut, and constitutes about 13.5 percent of the FRY's total territory.
Montenegro was settled by Slavic tribes and belonged to the Serbian kingdom as part of the Zeta province during the Middle Ages. With the incursion of the Ottoman Turks into southeastern Europe and Albanian families settling in the Kosovo region that separates Montenegro from Serbia, Montenegro became more separate from Serbia and developed a distinct variation of Orthodox Christian practice and a somewhat different version of the Serbian language, although the Cyrillic alphabet continued to be used. The Montenegrin version of Serbo-Croatian is more similar to Croatian than it is to Serbian. Fighting the Ottoman Turks from the mountains, Montenegro maintained its independence until 1516 when a Greek Catholic Bishop named Vladika assumed civil authority of the territory. Rule of Montenegro was transferred to other prince-bishops for three and a half centuries, until Nicholas I gave Montenegro its first constitution in 1868. During the World War I, Austria occupied Montenegro in 1916. When Austria-Hungary lost the war, Montenegro joined the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and the Slovenes in 1918, which was renamed Yugoslavia in 1929. With the advent of World War II and the invasion of the Balkans in 1941 by the Axis powers, Montenegro was declared independent and became a protectorate of Italy. In 1945, following the war, Montenegro became one of the republics of socialist Yugoslavia.
The population of Montenegro in the year 2000 was estimated to be 680,158 people, including 46,631 refugees and internally displaced persons (IDPs), according to the UN High Commissioner for Refugees. Due to extensive population movements in the Balkan peninsula during the 1990s resulting from ethnic violence and warfare and the very difficult economic circumstances and living conditions of this politically troubled region, population measures during the 1990s were either not taken or relatively unreliable for the most part. In the year 2000, about 230,000 displaced persons from Kosovo were living in other parts of the FRY (such as Montenegro), as were 500,000 refugees from Bosnia and Croatia. Population statistics and education-related counts for the 1990s and the early-2000 decade thus should be interpreted with care. A new census scheduled for March 2001 in the FRY should yield updated statistics toward the end of 2001.
In 1991 the ethnic composition of Montenegro was 61.9 percent Montenegrin, 14.6 percent Bosniac, 9.3 percent Serb, 6.6 percent Albanian, 0.5 percent Roma, and 7.1 percent other. In terms of religious affiliation, approximately 65 percent of the combined population of Serbia and Montenegro was Orthodox, 19 percent was Muslim, 4 percent was Roman Catholic, 1 percent was Protestant, and 11 percent was other. About 95 percent of this same population spoke Serbian, though the Montenegrin version of the language differs slightly from the language principally spoken in Serbia and 5 percent spoke Albanian. Approximately 70 percent of Montenegrins lived in urban areas in 1991. With a population density of 47 persons per square kilometer, Montenegro is rather sparsely populated, especially in the north, although greater concentrations of Montenegrins live along the coast and inland around the capital, Podgorica, near northwestern Albania. In 1911 just 18,907 Montenegrins (8.9 percent of the country's total population) had lived in towns of 2,000 inhabitants or more. In 2000 a significant proportion of Montenegrins still resided in villages.
In 2000 the total fertility rate in Montenegro was about two children per woman. An estimated 22 percent of the country's population was 14 years old or younger while nearly two-thirds of the population was between 15 and 64 and about 12 percent were 65 years of age or older. (Again, this assumes an age balance in 2000 equivalent to that in 1991, when the last census was taken. Due to population shifts, this may not be the case.) In 2000 Montenegro had an infant-mortality rate of 11 per 1,000 live births. The average life expectancy at birth in the year 2000 was 75.5 years (71.5 for men and 79.8 for women—a significant gender difference).
The Montenegrin workforce in 1999 was composed as follows: 30.5 percent of the labor force was employed in industry and mining, and just 4.3 percent was employed in agriculture, fisheries, and forestry; 65.2 percent was employed in service jobs. In 1999 the FRY had an annual economic growth rate of -20 percent of the GDP. Economic outputs were declining substantially, and the area stood in great need of international economic assistance, although international aid, especially to Serbia, was limited because of Serbia and Montenegro's lack of favor in the world's eye due to the FRY's reluctance to cooperate with the United Nations International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia before late June 2001. In 1999 Montenegro's real GDP was only 58 percent of the 1990 real GDP. However, significant black-market activity and gray-market activity also existed in the FRY, making it difficult to state with much accuracy the actual economic output of the FRY in the 1990s. GDP per capita in Montenegro in 1998 was estimated at US$1709. Unemployment in Montenegro in July 2000 ranged from 0.2 to nearly 32 percent, depending on the skill level and educational attainment of the worker. Unskilled laborers, persons with intermediate specialist training, and skilled workers had the highest unemployment rates (31.0 percent, 29.4 percent, and 26.9 percent, respectively). Earlier, as part of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Montenegro had been one of the poorest of the six republics, with its economy, based mainly on industry and large state-owned enterprises, reaching only 75 to 80 percent of the average level of development for the socialist federation. During the late 1990s, Montenegro increased its revenues from tourism and the marine trade, profiting from its favorable location on the Adriatic in contrast to landlocked Serbia.
Montenegro required substantial international development assistance during the 1990s and early twenty-first century to recover from the economic disruptions caused by a decade of war in the Balkans, sanctions imposed by the international community on the FRY in 1993, and sanctions Serbia itself imposed on Montenegro in 1999 for Montenegro's attempts to politically distance itself from Serbia. Until the international donors conference met on June 29, 2001, to discuss assistance to the FRY, Montenegro's aid packages from abroad were somewhat limited. At the June 2001 conference representatives from about 40 countries, UN agencies, and the World Bank met in Brussels, Belgium, and pledged about US$1.2 billion to assist the FRY primarily with rebuilding infrastructure and paying the salaries of teachers and doctors.
Constitutional & Legal Foundations
As noted above, Montenegro is one of the two republics of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, self-declared on 11 April 1992 as the successor state to the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY) and formally established by the Constitution of April 27, 1992. The new federal government formed in November 2000 dropped its previous claim of being the sole successor to the SFRY and was recognized by the international community. Montenegrin law is based on a civil law system. All Montenegrins, women and men, are eligible to vote at age 18; 16- and 17-year-olds can also vote if they are employed. Besides participating in the election of the president of the federation, Montenegrins elect their own republican president to a four-year term of service as head of state of the Republic of Montenegro. Milo Djukanovic, an advocate of greater autonomy for Montenegro in the federation with Serbia, was elected president of Montenegro on December 21, 1997. At the federal level, the president of the FRY was Slobodan Miloševic from 1987 until October 2000; he lost the September 2000 presidential election to Vojislav Kostunica, who had advocated for democratic reforms, economic improvements, and an end to corruption. The executive branch at the federal level also includes a prime minister, several deputy ministers, and a cabinet known as the Federal Executive Council.
At the federal level the legislative branch of the FRY is a bicameral Federal Assembly (Savezna Skupstina ) composed of a Chamber of Republics (Vece Republika ) of 40 members, 20 of them Serbian representatives and 20 Montenegrin representatives, elected to 4-year terms and distributed according to the party distributions in the republican assemblies of Serbia and Montenegro, and a Chamber of Citizens (Vece Gradjana ) of 138 members, 108 of them Serbian representatives (half of whom are elected by constituency majorities and half by proportional representation) and 30 of them Montenegrin representatives (6 elected by constituency majorities and 24 by proportional representation), all of whom serve 4-year terms. Decision-making in the republican government of Montenegro increased in importance in 1999 and later as Montenegro's nationalist movement gained further strength and Montenegrins attempted to regulate their internal affairs more to their own liking with less interference from Serbia. The third branch of the federal government is the judicial branch, consisting of the Federal Court (Savezni Sud ) and the Constitutional Court, both of whose judges are elected to nine-year terms by the Federal Assembly, the federal legislative body.
During the 1990s the human rights situation in Montenegro markedly worsened as ethnic violence spread in the Balkans. Large flows of refugees and IDPs sought shelter from the violence in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, and Kosovo and from the 1999 NATO bombing campaign aimed at halting Miloševic's alleged mass expulsions and murders of ethnic Albanians in Kosovo. Indictments against Montenegrins for war crimes associated with the ethnic violence in the region had yet to produce arrests by early 2001. With the arrest and extradition of Miloševic to The Hague on June 28, 2001, however, other arrests were expected in both Serbia and Montenegro, as well as a potentially more cooperative stance with the United Nations International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia by the republican governments and eventually by the federal government. The promise of substantial international donations to reconstruct the economies and infrastructure of the FRY following Miloševic's extradition in late June 2001 was viewed as a spur likely to produce a more positive climate within both Montenegro and Serbia for international cooperation that could positively impact the social and economic situations of the local Montenegrin population.
Within the FRY in 2000, serious human rights problems had existed, including violence and discrimination against women, trafficking in women and girls for forced prostitution, and police repression, as well as official and societal discrimination against Muslims, Roma, and other minorities in various parts of the FRY. Severe repression of political critics, student activists, the media, and political dissidents under the Miloševic regime also was a serious problem up through the first part of 2000. Hopes within the FRY and among international actors ran high by mid-2001 that the human rights climate would turn in a more positive direction with Miloševic out of the country.
The education system in Montenegro has been strongly influenced by the former education system of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia as well as by laws passed in the 1990s when Montenegro was part of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Educational policy is determined by the federal government and the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Montenegro, with significant input from international partners, such as the European Union and several national governments and nongovernmental organizations who have provided financial and technical support for education reforms. Key educational reforms at the turn of the millennium included efforts to improve vocational education and training in Montenegro and to upgrade the curriculum at various educational levels.
Compulsory education in Montenegro includes the 8 grades of primary school, attended by students typically aged 7 through 14. Serbian is the official language of instruction in Montenegrin schools, almost all of which are public. In some areas, Albanian is also offered as a language of instruction at the elementary and secondary levels. About 95.8 percent of primary students in Montenegro were taught in Serbian in the year 2000, while 4.2 percent of primary students were taught in Albanian. At the secondary level, 97.6 percent of students were taught in Serbian, and 2.4 percent were taught in Albanian. The official language of instruction at the university level was Serbian.
In 1997 about 32.2 percent of the population in the FRY was of school age or between 3 and 24 years of age. In 1999-2000, approximately 118,000 Montenegrin pupils and students were enrolled in primary, secondary, and university institutions out of the country's total population of about 680,000. The gross enrollment ratio that year for the basic education grades (the free, compulsory 8 years of primary schooling) was 98.5 percent.
Participation in preschool programming is optional, with infants and children up to three years of age sometimes cared for in childcare settings and preprimary schooling available for children between the ages of three and seven. Basic education includes the 8 years of compulsory schooling and is divided into two stages: lower primary, covering grades 1 through 4 for children generally 7 through 10 years of age; and upper primary, covering grades 5 through 8 for children aged 11 through 14. In 2000 about 84 percent of Montenegrin students were completing their compulsory education in 8 years.
Upper secondary schooling includes either 4 years of general education for students 15 through 18 years of age or 2, 3, or 4 years of vocational education for students starting at age 15. Specialized secondary schools also exist to provide four years of education in the arts, music, or ballet. Tertiary education is provided at the University of Montenegro and its 15 associated faculties. No nonuniversity higher education existed in Montenegro as of the 2000-2001 academic year, although university programs could be relatively long (lasting 4 through 6 years, beginning at age 19) or short (lasting 2 years). Postgraduate studies leading to the Master of Art or Master of Science degree also existed, although no special doctoral programs were to be found. Students interested in preparing a doctoral thesis could do so upon successful completion of a Master's degree program.
Preprimary & Primary Education
As noted above, preprimary education in Montenegro is optional. However, nearly 12,500 children—about 24 percent of all children ages 0 to 7—were enrolled in childcare or preprimary educational programs in the 1999-2000 school year. Starting in 1994, the Open Society Institute, a private foundation based in the United States and funded by philanthropist George Soros, introduced the "Step by Step" program into Montenegrin preschools with strong cooperation from the Ministry of Education and Science. Established in 2000 as an independent program, "Step by Step" in Montenegro also started primary level programming in eight model primary schools. "Step by Step" has emphasized reforming teacher training programs to prepare early childhood educators who are better versed in child-centered methodologies and democratic principles of classroom and school management. Across the transitional countries of Eastern and Central Europe, "Step by Step" has developed a positive reputation for building democratic partnerships among school staff, parents, and local community members and for fostering creativity and programs designed to support the educational needs of minority children. In Montenegro, children with disabilities, Roma, refugees, and the impoverished have especially benefited from "Step by Step" programs.
In 1999-2000, approximately 38,198 students were enrolled in lower primary schooling (grades 1 through 4) and 39,839 students were enrolled in the upper primary grades (grades 5 through 8) at 167 central schools and 303 branch (i.e., village) schools in Montenegro. All of the schools were publicly funded except for one private music school at the primary level. With an average of 22.5 pupils per class, about 4,888 teachers taught primary school in Montenegro that year. Significant differences in class size existed between village schools and town schools. In the villages, the pupil to teacher ratio was 11.8:1 for the first 4 primary grades, whereas in towns the comparable ratio was 24.5:1. In Montenegro's upper primary grades, classes averaged 24.4 pupils, although the pupil to teacher ratio was actually only 12.7:1 due to the high number of part-time teachers employed. In comparison, the pupil to teacher ratio for the FRY as a whole was 16.9:1 for basic education in 1997.
Educational innovations in the late 1990s included reductions of 10 to 30 percent in the subject contents and reductions in the number of classes taught weekly in specific subjects in the first three grades of basic education. Additionally, instruction in a first foreign language was added in grade 3 of the lower primary level for two 45-minute class periods each week.
In 1999-2000, a reported 31,817 students were enrolled in secondary schools covering 4 grades of general education in Montenegro (9,109 students in general education programs and 22,708 students taking 2-, 3-, or 4-year vocational programs, including part-time students). Art schools, apprentice schools, and teacher training institutes also exist at the secondary level in Montenegro. The balance of general versus vocational secondary education in the FRY as a whole has been somewhat different than in Montenegro. In 1996 nearly 56 percent of upper secondary students in FRY followed general courses of study while 44.3 percent were enrolled in vocational and technical programs. In the 1999-2000 academic year, secondary schools in Montenegro numbered 44 central schools and 1 branch school, all of them public. Twenty of the central schools provided general education and 24, plus the 1 branch school, offered vocational instruction at the secondary level in Montenegro. With 2,321 teachers providing secondary instruction, class sizes ranged from fewer than 10 students per class in some villages to an average of 30 to 40 students per class in towns. Vocational schools also had significantly smaller student to teacher ratios because of the fairly common practice in Montenegro of hiring a variety of teachers with special expertise in various vocational subjects, even when relatively few students sought training in particular vocational areas.
In the 1999-2000 academic year, 52.5 percent of secondary students in the FRY were female. Gender-related educational statistics for Montenegro were not readily available. Gross enrollment ratios at the secondary level in Montenegro were also rather difficult to estimate, as different information sources provide widely varying estimates. This is perhaps due to diverse methods of categorizing general and vocational secondary school programs.
At the general secondary level, curricular changes in Montenegro in the mid-1990s included new mathematics and philology gymnasium courses. The need to revise history textbooks was highlighted at the start of the new millennium by certain reform-minded individuals who found history instruction in Montenegro to be overly biased in a Serbian nationalist direction. Apparently history texts in use in Montenegro gave interpretations of historical events such as the war in Bosnia and the breakup of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia with a decidedly Serbian ethnonationalist slant; thus, they stood in dire need of revision so as to promote a more accurate depiction of Balkan history. In 1999 a new art curriculum was adopted in Montenegro for vocational education at the secondary level, and curricular changes were introduced in the secondary communications school with new subjects added. Changes also were made in the content of computer courses.
Participation rates at the tertiary level in Montenegro have increased steadily since 1991, although significant numbers of Montenegrin students continue to go outside of Montenegro to obtain their higher education. Montenegro has only one publicly funded university with 15 associated faculties, the University of Montenegro. Gross tertiary enrollment ratios in the mid-1990s for the FRY were reported as roughly 16.5 percent to 21 percent, with somewhat higher participation rates by females than by males. In 1999-2000 a total of 7,082 students were enrolled at the University of Montenegro and its 15 faculties. No private tertiary institutions existed in Montenegro. University-level teaching staff numbered 667, and the student to teacher ratio was reported to be about 12:1 (the slight numerical discrepancy perhaps due to the inclusion of some part-time faculty). In 1997 tertiary students in the FRY specialized in various disciplines according to the following proportions: 7.7 percent of students concentrated in the humanities, 20.8 percent in the social and behavioral sciences, 7.4 percent in the natural sciences, 11.1 percent in medicine, 17.9 percent in engineering, and 35.2 percent in other subject areas.
Administration, Finance, & Educational Research
The Ministry of Education and Science has primary administrative responsibility for Montenegro's basic education system and for the secondary and tertiary levels of instruction as well. At the federal level, the Rectors' Conference of Yugoslavia seated in Belgrade also formulates and administers education policy and practices. Costs of primary and secondary education are covered by the government in Montenegro, and mid-day meals are provided at state expense. In the year 2000 public expenditures on education and training in Montenegro amounted to about 7.1 percent of the GDP. Most of the government expenditures went to salaries of education-related personnel (91 percent) with much smaller portions of the public budget going to investments (5.6 percent) and school equipment (3.2 percent). Subsidies to student residence halls, student loans, textbook production, commuting expenses of educational staff, maintenance costs, and pupil and student fees also are included in the state budget for education. Parents and other individuals provide relatively modest amounts of additional funds for education-related expenses.
Significantly, international donors provided substantial grants and loans for education in Montenegro beginning in the 1990s, even before the sizable injection of international funds that followed the June 2001 international donors conference for the former Yugoslavia held in Brussels. For example, the EC "Obnova" Programme provided 500,000 euro for elementary education in 1998, and UNICEF gave US$1 million for basic education, school furniture, and teaching training in active-learning methodology in 1999. In the year 2000 UNICEF provided US$1.4 million to further support teacher training, education for peace and tolerance, and strategizing in early childcare programming. In 1999 the Open Society Institute (OSI) gave US$500,000 for the "Step by Step" program in preprimary and primary schools and to support educational reform and capacity building; in 2000 OSI gave US$647,000 for similar measures and to support higher education. WUS Austria provided funding in the amount of 450,000 DEM for each semester of the 1998-1999 academic year for the reconstruction of schools and other infrastructure, including Internet access and a University Internet Centre, and for other educational purposes, such as the introduction of language and computing courses for students and staff. International donors active in Montenegro's education sector also have included nongovernmental organizations and government-related agencies such as Save the Children, Catholic Relief Services, World Vision, the British Council, the Danish Council, Cooperacione Italiana, COOPI, HELP, Swiss Disaster Relief, and JEN.
A limited number of adult education programs existed in Montenegro at the turn of the millennium through part-time studies and evening schools, although in 1999 no special training courses for adults were provided on a regular basis. Fifty programs for training adults in some of the 3,952 state-recognized occupations had been approved by the state, though most were designed for the employees of specific employers; just a few of these were open to the general labor market. Training programs for adults generally lasted between 2 to 3 months and 6 months; some lasted 12 months for occupations with more specialized requirements. Additionally, in 1999-2000, a total of 153 adult learners were enrolled in basic education courses in Montenegro (i.e., covering the 8 grades of primary schooling) in 2 institutions with a total of 12 teachers and a student to teacher ratio of about 12.8:1.
Teacher preparation in Montenegro is provided through the university faculties. Preprimary teachers receive two years of postsecondary training at the faculty in Nik, whereas primary and secondary educators receive four years of higher education. Educators at the tertiary level—assistants, docents, faculty professors, regular professors, and extraordinary professors—obtain their higher education (and research training, depending on the level of education and area of expertise) in university undergraduate and post-graduate programs. Those interested in promotion to the highest positions must obtain the Doktor Nauka (Doctor of Science) degree in the appropriate fields of higher education and research. All teachers at the tertiary level must receive some form of specialized training.
New efforts in the late 1990s to increase the skills of teachers in service included training in student-centered methodology for about 2,000 basic education teachers, provided by UNICEF's Active Learning Project, the Open Society Institute's "Step by Step" program, seminars offered by the Ministry of Education and Science and the British Council, and seminars run by Longman Publishing Company for teachers using their published texts. Some training in evaluation and testing was also provided to basic education teachers through the above programs. About 150 teachers at the upper secondary level (both general and vocational) received further training through seminars offered by the Ministry and through language and methodology seminars taught through the British Council. Other secondary teachers received civic education training through such projects as Education for Tolerance, Peace, and Humane Development and Education for Democratic Citizenship.
At the beginning of the new millennium, Montenegro was poised for significant political and societal changes. After experiencing an economic decline during the 1980s and 1990s, changing its political status from one of the former six republics of the Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia to one of two republics in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in 1992, participating to some extent in the ethnic violence that swept the Balkan region in the 1990s, and witnessing the movement of thousands of IDPs and refugees through its territory, Montenegro had an educational system that was ripe for revision by the year 2001. Efforts to improve the quality of instruction in the vocational area and to upgrade adult education offerings appeared to be among the most needed reforms, along with democratization of school management and the conduct of classes and the reformation of course content to more accurately depict historical events and to reflect the multicultural, multilinguistic nature of Montenegro and the other Balkan states. By June 2001 a large conference of international donors was meeting in Brussels to discuss an international package of financial assistance to the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, including Montenegro. Much of the US$1.2 billion in funds pledged at the conference would be directed to the educational sector to address such problems as teacher salaries being so low that qualified persons often declined the opportunity to teach and school facilities so in need of upgrading and sometimes outright reconstruction that few laboratories or technological equipment were available to serve the basic educational needs of Montenegro's upcoming generations of students.
At mid-year 2001 Montenegro itself was considering holding a referendum to determine its own status as an independent republic or a continuing member of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. No matter how the referendum would turn out, it was clear that significant reforms—political, economic, and social, including in the education sector—would need to be made to satisfy the Montenegrin public, many of whom had grown weary of state-centered direction and overbearing governance from Belgrade with a Serbian flavor. The possibilities for significant, publicly responsive educational reforms appeared promising for the second half of 2001, with former Yugoslav president Slobodan Miloševic out of power and new, more democratically minded government officials at the helm both at the federal level and in Serbia, the long-dominant republic in Yugoslav affairs. Montenegro's own president, Milo Djukanovic, appeared increasingly willing to resist Serbian attempts to exert control over Montenegro's internal affairs and eager to address the needs, interests, and sentiments of Montenegrins. This included the desire of many Montenegrins to improve their educational system so that graduates of all levels of instruction would be better prepared to meet the demands of a rapidly changing labor market, to contribute to their country's economic development, and to take their part in a more locally responsive, democratic society where greater decision-making authority would rest in the hands of the Montenegrin people.
Amnesty International. "Europe" and "Yugoslavia (Federal Republic of)" in Amnesty International Report 2001. Available from http://web.amnesty.org/.
Berryman, Sue E. Hidden Challenges to Education Systems in Transition Economies. Washington, DC: The World Bank, Europe and Central Asia Region, Human Development Sector, 2000.
Britannica.com. Yugoslavia—The People: Montenegro and Balkans—The People. Available from http://www.britannica.com/.
Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. "Yugoslavia, Federal Republic of" in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices—2000. U.S. Department of State, February 2001. Available from http://www.state.gov/.
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). The World Fact-book 2000. Directorate of Intelligence, 1 January 2001. Available from http://www.cia.gov/.
Gianaris, Nicholas V. Geopolitical and Economic Changes in the Balkan Countries. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1996.
Human Rights Watch. Federal Republic of Yugoslavia—Serbia and Montenegro: Human Rights Developments. Available from http://www.hrw.org/.
United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization. Yugoslavia—Education System. World Higher Education Database, 2000. Available from http://www.unesco.org/.
Profile of Montenegro: Montenegro—Culture and Education. Available from http://www.medijaklub.cg.yu/.
MonteNet. Education in Montenegro. Available from http://www.montenet.org/.
Palairet, Michael. The Balkan Economies c. 1800-1914: Evolution Without Development. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.
Nikolic, Predrag. Reform of the Montenegrin Education: History as a Perishable Good. AIM Podgorica. Available from http://www.aimpress.org/.
South East European Educational Cooperation Network. Step by Step in Montenegro (OSI [Open Society Institute], since 1994). Available from http://www.seeeducoop.net/.
Van Praag, Nick. Press Release: Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Joins World Bank, 8 May 2001. Available from http://wbln0018.worldbank.org.
World Bank Group. Yugoslavia, FR (Serb./Mont.) at a Glance, 13 September 2000. Available from http://wbln0018.worldbank.org/.
——. Yugoslavia, FR (Serbia/Montenegro) Data Profile. World Development Indicators database, July 2000. Available from http://devdata.worldbank.org/.
World Bank, Human Development Network. Education Sector Strategy. Washington, DC: The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank, 1999.
World Bank, The Task Force on Higher Education and Society. Higher Education in Developing Countries: Peril and Promise. Washington, DC: The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank, 2000.
Zivkovic, Natasa of Ministry of Education and Science, Podgorica, Montenegro. Statistical Data for Background Purposes of OECD Review—Country: Montenegro. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Education, Centre for Educational Policy Studies, December 2000.
—Barbara Lakeberg Dridi
"Montenegro." World Education Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. (January 17, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/montenegro
"Montenegro." World Education Encyclopedia. . Retrieved January 17, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/montenegro
Montenegro (mŏn´tənē´grō), Serbo-Croatian Crna Gora, officially Republic of Montenegro, republic (2011 pop. (2011 pop. 185,937), 5,332 sq mi (13,810 sq km), W Balkan Peninsula. It is bordered by Croatia in the west, Bosnia and Herzegovina in the northwest, Serbia in northeast, Kosovo and Albania in the southeast, and the Adriatic Sea in the southwest. Podgorica is the capital and largest city.
Land, People, and Economy
Situated at the southern end of the Dinaric Alps, Montenegro is almost entirely mountainous, with a small coastline along the Adriatic. It consists of two regions: the barren karst of Montenegro proper, on the west, is separated by the Zeta River and its plain from the higher Brda region, on the east, which has forests and pastures. Lake Scutari, the nation's largest lake, is at the southern end of the karst and forms part of the Albanian border. In addition to the capital, principal cities are Cetinje, Nikšić, and Kotor, the only Adriatic port.
The Montenegrin people, who make up less than half of the population, share a language, many customs, and an Orthodox faith with the Serbs; nevertheless, they are a separate ethnic nationality with a distinct history. Serbs make up about a third of the population. Of the roughly 70% of the population that is Orthodox, 70% are members of the Serbian Orthodox Church and the rest members of the Montenegrin Orthodox Church (a newly established body that is not recognized by other Orthodox churches). Other minorities include Bosniaks, who are largely Muslim and live mainly in the Sanjak, or Sankžak, region (which straddles the border with Serbia), and Albanians, also largely Muslim. The official language under the constitution adopted in 2007 was defined as Montenegrin (formerly considered the Ijekavian dialect of Serbian). Standard Serbian, Bosnian, Albanian, and Croatian are also spoken and are officially recognized languages.
Historically, the raising of sheep and goats have been important occupations in Montenegro. Agriculture, mainly in the Zeta valley and near Lake Scutari, is poorly developed, with only about 6% of the country cultivated. Grains, tobacco, potatoes, citrus, olives, and grapes are grown. Industry is also relatively underdeveloped, except for agricultural processing and steel and aluminum mills. Montenegro has significant deposits of bauxite, iron, and petroleum. There is also significant tourism along the coast. In the 1990s, smuggling is said to have supplied about a third of the government's revenues. There is high unemployment, and the country has a severe trade deficit. Italy, Slovenia, Greece, Hungary, and Germany are the main trading partners.
Montenegro is governed under the constitution of adopted in 2007. The president, who is the head of state, is popularly elected for a five-year term and is eligible for a second term. The government is headed by the prime minister, who is proposed by the president with the approval of the legislature. Members of the unicameral legislature, the 81-seat Assembly, are popularly elected to serve four-year terms. Administratively, Montenegro is divided into 21 municipalities.
From the 14th to the 19th cent. the principal activity of the fiercely independent Montenegrin people was fighting the Turks, who never entirely conquered their mountain stronghold. In the 14th cent. the region constituting present Montenegro was the virtually independent principality of Zeta in the Serbian empire. After Serbia was defeated by the Turks in the battle of Kosovo Field (1389), Montenegro continued to resist and became a refuge for Serbian nobles who fled Turkish rule. The sultans did not recognize Montenegrin independence, but, although they thrice destroyed Cetinje, they never succeeded in making Montenegro tributary. However, the princes of Montenegro ruled only a small part of the present republic, the rest being governed by Turkey after 1499 and by Venice, which held Kotor.
From 1515 until 1851 the rule of Montenegro was vested in the prince-bishops (vladikas) of Cetinje; these were assisted by civil governors. Social organization, geared almost exclusively to the needs of war, was largely military and patriarchal. With Danilo I, who ruled from 1696 to 1735, the episcopal succession was made hereditary in the Niegosh family, the office passing ordinarily from uncle to nephew, because the bishops could not marry. Danilo I also inaugurated (1715) the traditional alliance of Montenegro with Russia; the emperors of Russia were henceforth considered as at least the spiritual suzerains of the vladikas.
Peter I, who reigned from 1782 to 1830, defied both France and Austria when the Treaty of Campo Formio (1797) transferred the Venetian possession of Kotor to Austria, but he failed to obtain the coveted port. However, in 1799, Sultan Selim III recognized the independence of Montenegro. Peter I instituted internal reforms and sought to end the blood feuds and lawlessness that had become a traditional way of life. He was canonized as a saint after his death. Peter II (reigned 1830–51), a gifted poet, continued his predecessor's work of reform and fostered a revival of learning and culture; aside from occasional border warfare, he lived in relative peace with his neighbors, Turkey and Austria. Danilo II, who succeeded him, secularized his principality in 1852 and transferred his ecclesiastic functions to an archbishop.
Under Nicholas I (reigned 1860–1918) Montenegro was formally recognized as an independent state at the Congress of Berlin (1878), which increased its territory and gave it a narrow outlet on the Adriatic. In 1910, Nicholas proclaimed himself king. He fought Turkey in the Balkan Wars and took Shkodër in 1913, but was forced by the pressure of the European powers to evacuate the city. Montenegro did, however, receive part of the territory claimed by newly independent Albania.
When World War I broke out (1914), the Montenegrins invaded Albania. Montenegro declared war on Austria in Aug., 1914, but late in 1915 it was overrun by Austro-German forces. In Nov., 1918, a national assembly declared Nicholas deposed and effected the union of Montenegro with Serbia. Under the centralized, Serbian-dominated government of what became the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, Montenegro largely ceased to exist. In 1922 the Serbian Orthodox Church was declared the official church and the Montenegrin branch was outlawed. After World War II, Montenegro was reestablished as (1946) one of the six republics of Yugoslavia, and its territory was enlarged with the addition of part of the Dalmatian coast.
As Yugoslavia began to disintegrate in the early 1990s, Montenegro and Serbia were the only republics in which the electorate kept the Communists in power and voted to remain in the Yugoslavian federation. Although Montenegro backed the Serbs militarily early in the civil war, it moved away from armed engagement and vigorously protested being grouped with Serbia when UN trade sanctions were imposed in 1992. The sanctions crippled shipping and tourism and caused economic hardship. When they were temporarily lifted in 1995, Montenegro privatized businesses and pursued a market economy.
Milo Djukanović, a supporter of increased sovereignty or independence for the republic, was elected president of Montenegro in 1997. Although many Montenegrins desired independence from Serbia, many others opposed it. Montenegro was not heavily attacked by NATO during the Kosovo crisis of 1999, but many Montenegrins sympathized with Serbia. Relations with Serbia, which grew increasingly strained in 1999 and 2000, eased after Vojislav Koštunica became (Oct., 2000) Yugoslav president, but Djukanović did not waver in his support for a looser Yugoslav federation or independence. In Nov., 1999, Montenegro adopted the German mark as legal tender along with the dinar; the mark (the euro, after Mar., 2001) became the sole currency in Nov., 2000. Djukanović's Democratic party of Socialists (DPS) won the largest bloc of seats in the Apr., 2001, elections, but failed to win a parliamentary majority.
After failed talks later in the year on the future of the Yugoslav federation, the Montenegrin and Yugoslavian presidents agreed that Montenegro would hold a referendum on independence in May, 2002. That referendum was postponed, however, by the signing in Mar., 2002, of a pact that called for restructuring the federal government. The accord led to a constitution establishing the "state union" of Serbia and Montenegro in Feb., 2003. Both republics gained increased autonomy under the new constitution; the federal government was responsible primarily for foreign policy and defense.
In Nov., 2002, Djukanović resigned as president to become prime minister. The December and February presidential elections were legally inconclusive due to low turnout. After the election law was amended to require only a majority of those voting to win the presidency, Filip Vujanović, an ally of the prime minister's, was elected in May, 2003. A proposal (Feb., 2005) by the president and prime minister that Montenegro and Serbia each recognize the other as an independent nation was rejected by Serbia as a violation of of the 2002 accord, which postponed any such move until 2006. In May, 2006, however, Montenegrin voters approved (by slightly more than 55%) independence, with ethnic Serbs strongly opposing the move.
In June, 2006, Montenegro formally declared its independence, and in the September elections following independence, Djukanović's DPS-led coalition won a majority of the seats in parliament. Djukanović resigned as prime minister the following month; Željko Šturanović, the justice minister, was chosen as his successor. A new constitution was adopted in Oct., 2007, but the Serb and Albanian opposition parties did not vote for it. Šturanović resigned in Jan., 2008, for health reasons, and Djukanović succeeded him as prime minister the following month. President Vujanović was reelected in Apr., 2008.
The Mar., 2009, elections again gave the DPS-led coalition a parliamentary majority. Djukanović resigned as prime minister in Dec., 2010, possibly as a result of European Union pressure (he had been accused of criminal activities); the finance minister, Igor Lukšić, succeeded him. The DPS-led coalition fell short of a majority in the Oct., 2012, elections, forcing it into a coalition with small ethnic minority parties; Djukanović was confirmed as prime minister in December. In the Apr., 2013, presidential election, Vujanović was narrowly reelected, but the opposition disputed the results and alleged that there were irregularities in the vote. The narrow victory was seen as a blow to the government.
"Montenegro." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (January 17, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/montenegro
"Montenegro." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved January 17, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/montenegro
"Montenegro." World Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. (January 17, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/montenegro
"Montenegro." World Encyclopedia. . Retrieved January 17, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/montenegro
Serbia and Montenegro
Serbia and Montenegro (sûr´bēə, mŏn´tənē´grō), Serbian Srbija i Crna Gora, former country of SE Europe, in the Balkan Peninsula, a short-lived union (2003–6) of the republics of Serbia and the much smaller Montenegro that was also a successor state to the former Yugoslavia. Belgrade was the federal capital and largest city. See Yugoslavia.
"Serbia and Montenegro." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (January 17, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/serbia-and-montenegro
"Serbia and Montenegro." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved January 17, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/serbia-and-montenegro
"Montenegro." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Encyclopedia.com. (January 17, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/montenegro
"Montenegro." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Retrieved January 17, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/montenegro