Heydar Aliyev (khā´där älē´yĕf), 1923–2003, Azerbaijani political leader, president of Azerbaijan (1993–2003), b. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic, grad. Azerbaijan State Univ. (1957). Aliyev joined the USSR's security forces in 1941, eventually becoming deputy chairman (1964–67) and chairman (1967–69) of the KGB in the Azerbaidhzan SSR. He was made head of the Azerbaidzhan Communist party in 1969 and a member of the central committee of the Soviet Communist party in 1971. In 1982 he became a member of the Soviet Politburo and was named first deputy prime minister. Under Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev, Aliyev was charged with dishonesty and ousted (1987) from the Politburo; he also was removed as party leader in Azerbaidzhan. Aliyev won election to the Azerbaidzhan SSR's supreme soviet in 1990, resigned from the Communist party in 1991, and after the abortive coup against Gorbachev, advocated independence for what became Azerbaijan. A government crisis in 1993 enabled Aliyev to proclaim himself acting head of state; he won presidential elections later that year and again in 1998. An authoritarian ruler, he survived coup and assassination attempts and brought some stability to post-Soviet Azerbaijan. Ailing, he did not run in 2003, but engineered the election of Ilham Aliyev, his son, as president.
"Aliyev, Heydar." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (December 16, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/aliyev-heydar
"Aliyev, Heydar." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved December 16, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/aliyev-heydar
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.