Celâl Bayar (jĕläl´ bä´yär), 1884–1986, Turkish statesman. The son of a religious leader and teacher, Bayar joined the nationalist movement after the Young Turk revolution. Kemal Atatürk's colleague after World War I, he held several ministerial positions (1921–37); he supervised the Greek-Turkish exchange of population (1923). In 1937 he became premier, but he resigned the post after Atatürk's death (1938). In 1946 he founded with Adnan Menderes and others the Democratic party, which came to power in 1950. He then became president of the republic and was reelected in 1954 and 1957. Ousted in 1960 by Cemal Gürsel, he was tried for violating the constitution and sentenced to death. The sentence was commuted to life imprisonment in 1961. Bayar was released because of ill health in 1964 and pardoned in 1966.
"Bayar, Celâl." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (December 14, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/bayar-celal
"Bayar, Celâl." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved December 14, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/bayar-celal
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.