Ben Ali, Zine el-Abidine
Zine el-Abidine Ben Ali (zē´nĕl abĬdēn bĕn älē´), 1936–, president of Tunisia (1987–2011). Educated in France and the United States, he entered the army and became ambassador to Poland (1980–94), minister of national security (1984–86), and interior minister (1986–87). In Oct., 1987, he became prime minister under the aging Tunisian president Habib Bourguiba, whom he deposed in a bloodless coup on Nov. 8, 1987. Ben Ali was elected president in 1989 and reelected in 1994, 1999, 2004, and 2009, but the elections were marked by a lack of real opposition and government intimidation.
Ben Ali had a moderating influence on the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO leaders lived in Tunisia for 10 years) and was a supporter of attempts at reaching peace with Israel. Domestically, he continued to develop a relatively secular, Westernized, and increasingly middle-class nation, but the enrichment of members of his extended family during his rule and persistent high unemployment led in 2011 to protests that forced him into exile. He was subsequently convicted (2011, 2012) in absentia of embezzlement and other charges.
"Ben Ali, Zine el-Abidine." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (December 12, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/ben-ali-zine-el-abidine
"Ben Ali, Zine el-Abidine." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved December 12, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/ben-ali-zine-el-abidine
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.