Idriss Déby (ĬdrĬs´ dĕbē´), 1952–, Chadian military and political leader, president of Chad (1990–), b. Fada. Trained in military schools in Chad and France, he returned to Chad in 1979 to serve in the armed forces. When Hissène Habré came to power in 1982, Déby became head of the armed forces and won major victories over rebel groups in the 1980s. He later was an adviser on security and defense. In the late 1980s, as Habré's rule became increasingly repressive, Déby left for Sudan, where he formed the Patriotic Movement of Salvation. In 1990, promising democratic reforms and a new constitution, Déby ousted Habré. A transitional government was set up in 1993 with Déby as president, but promised elections were not held until 1996, when Déby was returned to office; he was reelected in 2001 and, after presidential term limits were ended, in 2006 and 2011. His regime has been accused of corruption, political repression, and electoral fraud, and the government and army have been dominated by Déby's Zaghawa ethnic group. He has been opposed by various rebel groups, which twice have advanced to the capital in attempts to oust him.
"Déby, Idriss." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (October 18, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/deby-idriss
"Déby, Idriss." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved October 18, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/deby-idriss
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.