Hollande, François Gérard Georges
François Gérard Georges Hollande, 1954–, French lawyer and politician, president of France (2012–), b. Rouen. He attended the elite National School of Administration (ENA) and Paris Institute of Political Studies (Sciences Po). Joining the Socialist party in 1979, he was an economic adviser in President Mitterrand's administration. Hollande was elected to the National Assembly in 1988, served there until 1993, was reelected in 1997, and from then on served in the parliament. An affable and witty centrist, he was Socialist party leader from 1997 to 2008, and also was mayor of Tulle (2001–8) and council president of Corrèze dept. (2008–12). In 2011, after Dominique Strauss-Kahn did not run, Hollande won his party's presidential nomination. In 2012, in the runoff election, he defeated the incumbent, Nicolas Sarkozy, and became France's first Socialist president since Mitterrand retired (1995).
"Hollande, François Gérard Georges." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (January 24, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/hollande-francois-gerard-georges
"Hollande, François Gérard Georges." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved January 24, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/hollande-francois-gerard-georges
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.