Skip to main content

James Bay Project

James Bay Project, a colossal hydroelectric development of the rivers emptying into the E James Bay, central Quebec, Canada. La Grande Phase I, finished in 1985, created the world's largest underground powerhouse, a tiered spillway on La Grande River three times the height of Niagara Falls, and five reservoirs that total half the volume of Lake Ontario. La Grande Phase II, involving the redirection of flow from the Eastmain, Laforge, and Caniapiscau rivers into La Grande, was largely completed when further work was suspended in 1994. For much of its history up to that point the project had evoked a tremendous response from environmentalists and the Cree, who claimed that the project was destroying the region and disrupting the lives of the native population as rivers were diverted, forests incinerated, and wilderness areas inundated. The Great Whale Project, involving the diversion of the Little Whale and Nastapoca rivers into the Great Whale River, and the NBR Project, involving the diversion of the Rupert and Nottaway rivers into the Broadback River basin, were also suspended; no construction on either had begun. In 2002 an agreement with the Cree cleared the way for completion of La Grande Phase II and the diversion of the upper Rupert River into the La Grande (via the Eastmain and other diverted rivers). The NBR Project was canceled.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"James Bay Project." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 18 Oct. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"James Bay Project." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (October 18, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/james-bay-project

"James Bay Project." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved October 18, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/james-bay-project

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.