Skip to main content

Machado, Gerardo

Gerardo Machado (gārär´ŧħō mächä´ŧħō), 1871–1939, president of Cuba (1925–33). A businessman turned presidential candidate in 1924, he channeled the resurgent nationalism of the era. His victory over Menocal in the 1924 election, was aided by President Zayas. Machado's campaign for national regeneration initially received wide support. He taxed American capital investments, constructed a 700–mi (1,127–km) central highway and promoted investments in tourism, industry and mining. Increasingly dictatorial, he amended the constitution to permit a six-year term, aiding his reelection. The Wall Street crash and economic crisis fueled growing opposition. Old guard opposition leaders led an abortive revolt in 1931. Student groups and secret societies of middle-class professionals, notably the ABC, subsequently rebelled. A leading figure was university professor, Ramón Grau San Martín. Machado retaliated with a bloody terrorist campaign. U.S. President Franklin Roosevelt, concerned with the political instability in Cuba, sent an envoy Sumner Welles to resolve the crisis. Machado refused to resign, but a general strike which sparked an army rebellion soon forced him to flee. Carlos Manuel de Céspedes became provisional president. Machado died in exile in Miami Beach, Fla.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Machado, Gerardo." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 14 Dec. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Machado, Gerardo." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (December 14, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/machado-gerardo

"Machado, Gerardo." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved December 14, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/machado-gerardo

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.