pollution allowance or emission rights, government-issued permit to emit a certain amount of a pollutant. The holder of the permit may use it to pollute legally, may trade permits, or may sell the permit for a profit. The allowance issued to a polluter is reduced over time as permitted levels of a pollutant are cut. By specifying reductions in emissions but leaving the polluter to decide how to cut them, the system is intended to provide free-market incentives to lessen both pollution (principally acid rain) and compliance costs. A company that cuts its pollution below its permitted level may sell the surplus allowance; a company that exceeds its limits without purchasing an extra allowance is fined. Under the Clean Air Act of 1990, federal allowances for sulfur dioxide emissions are issued to polluters, and additional allowances are auctioned. Usually bought by companies, allowances are sometimes purchased by environmentalists who retire them in order to reduce overall emissions. Sponsored by the Environmental Protection Agency and run by the Chicago Board of Trade, the first U.S. air pollution auction was held in 1993. While many have praised the system's innovative market-driven approach to the problem of environmental pollution, critics question its monitoring provisions and raise the possibility that it may merely shift pollution from one region to another. Under the 1997 Kyoto Protocol on greenhouse gases (as amended in 2001; effective 2005; extended to 2020 in 2012), nations that emit fewer such gases than permitted under the accord may sell their surplus emission rights to other nations.
"pollution allowance." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (September 22, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/pollution-allowance
"pollution allowance." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved September 22, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/pollution-allowance
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.