Skip to main content

Svinhufvud, Pehr Evind

Pehr Evind Svinhufvud (pār ā´vĬnd svēn´hŏŏ´vəd, svĬn´hŏŏvŏŏd), 1861–1944, president of Finland (1931–37). A judge under the Russian czarist regime in Finland, he played a major part in the movement for Finnish independence and was banished (1914–17) to Siberia. On his return he headed the provisional government and proclaimed (Dec., 1917) the independence of Finland. In alliance with Germany, he directed the war (1918) against the Finnish Bolsheviks, who were aided by the Soviet Union. Svinhufvud became premier in 1930 and in 1931 succeeded K. J. Stahlberg as president of Finland. He took strong measures against the Communists and also suppressed the Fascist movement known as the Lapua, which had helped him to office. In 1937 he was succeeded as president by Kyosti Kallio, of the Agrarian party. Svinhufvud went into retirement, emerging briefly in 1940 to aid in negotiating the Finnish-German treaty.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Svinhufvud, Pehr Evind." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 18 Oct. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Svinhufvud, Pehr Evind." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (October 18, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/svinhufvud-pehr-evind

"Svinhufvud, Pehr Evind." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved October 18, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/svinhufvud-pehr-evind

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.