Venezuela Claims: In 1902, due to civil strife and to gross mismanagement during the administration of Cipriano Castro, Venezuelan finances were chaotic. Great Britain, Germany, and Italy were determined to seek redress for unpaid loans and sent a joint naval expedition to the Venezuelan coast; seaports were blockaded and shelled by German and British vessels, and Venezuelan gunboats were captured. The matter was embarrassing to the United States because of the Monroe Doctrine. The powers, taking a conciliatory step, disclaimed territorial ambitions. Germany in particular had already brought its claims to U.S. attention. Theodore Roosevelt refused a request to act as arbitrator, but the United States worked toward an amicable settlement.
The claims were adjusted at Caracas in 1903, but further complications arose as to whether Venezuela should pay off the debts owed to the blockading powers before settling the claims of neutral nations; in 1904 the Hague Tribunal decided in favor of the blockading powers. The dispute became significant in international law because the scope of the Monroe Doctrine was not extended to include such cases as this; further, the heated resentment of other Spanish American nations over violation of the sovereignty of one of them resulted in the Drago Doctrine (see under Drago, Luis María).
"Venezuela Claims." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (October 21, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/venezuela-claims
"Venezuela Claims." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved October 21, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/venezuela-claims
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.