Yanukovych, Viktor Fedorovych
Viktor Fedorovych Yanukovych (vēk´tôr yänōōkō´vĬch), 1950–, Ukrainian politician, president of Ukraine (2010–14). The graduate of a mining college and a polytechnic institute (1980), he was a mechanical engineer and member of the Soviet Communist party, and became manager of a transportation company. After Ukrainian independence (1991), he was named (1997) governor of the Donetsk region, and in 2002 was appointed prime minister by President Leonid Kuchma. Yanukovych increased both state control of the economy and social spending. Two years later, as leader of the pro-Russia Party of Regions, he was Kuchma's chosen candidate for president, running against opposition leader Viktor Yushchenko. Although Yushchenko led after the first round, Yanukovych was proclaimed the winner after the Nov., 2004, runoff. Yushchenko's supporters poured into the streets of Kiev to protest the results, launching Ukraine's "Orange Revolution." The supreme court eventually nullified the vote, and the runoff was reheld in December, when Yanukovych lost. In 2006, however, he reemerged as a powerful and skillful opponent to Yushchenko when he forged a majority coalition in the wake of parliamentary elections and became prime minister. New elections in 2007, however, gave a narrow majority to the remaining "Orange coalition" parties, and Yanukovych and his party went into the opposition. He won the first round of the presidential election in 2010, and then won a runoff against Yulia Tymoshenko, but failed to garner a majority. His election quickly led to reduced tensions with Russia and, in exchange for a reduced price for Russian natural gas, Yanukovich extended Russia's lease on the Sevastopol naval base by 25 years. In late 2013 his decision to reject an association agreement with the European Union (in favor of Russian aid) sparked antigovernment demonstrations that led in Feb., 2014, to the collapse of his government; Yanukovych fled to Russia. Subsequently, the new government found that the treasury had been looted and other evidence of pervasive corruption during Yanukovych's term of office.
"Yanukovych, Viktor Fedorovych." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (January 17, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/yanukovych-viktor-fedorovych
"Yanukovych, Viktor Fedorovych." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved January 17, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/yanukovych-viktor-fedorovych
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.