Zinder (zĬn´dər), city (1988 pop. 120,892), S Niger. It is the trade center for an agricultural region where grains, manioc, and peanuts are grown, and cattle and sheep are raised. Manufactures include millet flour, beverages, and tanned goods. Zinder was situated on an old trans-Saharan caravan route that connected N Nigeria with the African coast as early as the 11th cent. The walled town was the capital of a Muslim state controlled by Bornu from the 16th to the mid-19th cent. Zinder was conquered by the French in 1899 and during World War I was the scene of an unsuccessful Tuareg uprising against French control. The town grew after 1920, when nomads began settling there in large numbers, and from 1922 to 1926 it served as the capital of the French Niger colony. Parts of the old city wall and the 19th-century palace of the ruler of Zinder still stand.
"Zinder." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (October 21, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/zinder
"Zinder." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved October 21, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/zinder
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.