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Man (Manchus)

Man (Manchus)

PRONUNCIATION: man-CHOOZ

ALTERNATE NAMES: Jurchens; Manzhou

LOCATION: China

POPULATION: 9.85 million

LANGUAGE: Chinese

RELIGION: Shamanism

1 INTRODUCTION

The Man, better known as the Manchus, dwell mainly in northeast China. They are descended from the Jurchens of the Central Plains. The Jurchens were conquered by the Yuan Dynasty (12711368) and later ruled by the Ming (13681644). Starting in the fifteenth century, the Jurchens' tribal leaders were appointed by the central government. In the sixteenth century, a Jurchen hero, Nurhachi (15591626), unified all the tribes by military force. His leadership combined military operations, government administration, and economic management. He was the founder of Qing Dynasty (16441911). His eighth son succeeded him on the throne. In 1635, he changed the name of his nationality to Manzhou (origin of the Western term "Manchu"). It was shortened to Man in 1911 when China's last dynasty ended.

2 LOCATION

The Manchus live all over China. Most live in Liaoning Province. Smaller numbers are found in the regions of Jilin, Heilongjiang, Hebei, Inner Mongolia, Xinjiang, Gansu, and Shandong, as well as the cities of Beijing, Tianjin, Chengdu, Xi'an, and Guangzhou. The Manchu population was 9.85 million in 1990, second in size only to the Zhuang among the national minorities.

3 LANGUAGE

The Man language belongs to the Altaic family. It has been spoken less and less since the end of the eighteenth century. Today it is used only by a small number of Manchus. Almost all of the Manchus speak Chinese.

4 FOLKLORE

A large portion of Manchu mythology is about ancestors. According to one myth, three fairy maidens took a bath in Tianchi (Heavenly Lake) in the Changbai Mountains. The youngest ate a small red fruit that a golden bird carried in its bill. She got pregnant and bore a boy who could speak as soon as he was born. She named him Aixinjueluo (the last name of Qing Dynasty emperors). When he had grown up, she told him the story of his birth and then rose up to heaven.

5 RELIGION

The traditional beliefs of the Manchus are rooted in shamanism, which revolves around magical healers. Shamans help women bear children, and they cure illness and shield people from harm. The shaman dances in a trance to cure the sick. There is only one real shaman in each village. When he performs, the shaman wears a long skirt and a special hat. Many long strips of colored cloth hang from it and cover his face and head. Shamanism still exists in Manchu villages, but it disappeared from cities long ago.

6 MAJOR HOLIDAYS

The Chinese Spring Festival, or New Year, occurs between January 21 and February 20 on the Western calendar. It is a major holiday for the Manchus. They decorate their doors with red, yellow, blue, or white banners.

Some Manchu festivals are related to sacrificial rites. For example, every family offers a sacrifice (usually a black male pig) to its ancestors in autumn.

7 RITES OF PASSAGE

In order to obtain the gods' blessings, a small bow and arrow are hung at a family's gate when a boy is born. A strip of cloth is hung when a girl is born. Girls are made to lie on their backs with a special pillow under their heads because it is considered pretty for the back of the head to be flattened.

When a person dies, the coffin is brought in and carried out through a window instead of through the door. The funeral must be held on an odd-numbered day. Before the funeral, a post is erected in the courtyard. A long, narrow flag made of red and black pieces of cloth is hung on it. During the funeral, relatives and friends take pieces of the flag. They then use the pieces to make clothes for their children. They believe this will protect the children from harm. After the funeral ceremony, the dead person is buried.

8 RELATIONSHIPS

Guests are warmly welcomed in a Manchu home. However, they must avoid sitting in the part of the house reserved for ancestors.

When the bride-to-be visits her future husband's family for the first time, she is given a small heart-shaped bag. It is used for carrying money and other objects and actually consists of two smaller bags. The girl keeps one and gives the other to her future husband.

9 LIVING CONDITIONS

Inside a Manchu courtyard, there is usually a post for sacrificial offerings. The house is made of wood and adobe. Its central room opens to the south. The room in the west part of the house is usually the bedroom. The parents and older family members sleep on the north side, the children on the south side.

10 FAMILY LIFE

The Manchu family name is carried on by males. Three or more generations often live in one household. The Manchus have great respect for their elders. Men and women hold equal power in the family. Men engage in farming. Women work in the fields, but they usually spend most of their time doing household chores. The Manchu are monogamous (they marry only one person). Arranged marriages are common. Young people become engaged at sixteen or seventeen.

11 CLOTHING

The traditional Manchu costumes included long robes. These robes were still worn in the first part of this century. Then they slowly disappeared. However, women's robes (cheongsam) are still worn on special occasions, but their style has changed. Women wear wooden blocks about 2.5 inches (6.2 centimeters) high under the middle part of their shoe soles. Their hair is worn in a flat bun behind the neck.

12 FOOD

The Manchus like to eat millet, including sticky millet. "Cooked mutton held in the hand" is a required part of the Spring Festival. Mutton (the meat of a sheep) is chopped into pieces and partly cooked with a little salt. Each piece is held in the hand while it is eaten. Sometimes a knife is needed. The most popular snack is saqima, a candied fritter. It is made by mixing flour with eggs, cutting the mixture into noodles, and frying it. It is then taken out, covered with syrup, and stirred. Finally, it is put into a wooden frame, pressed, cut into squares, and served.

13 EDUCATION

The Manchus have always had a high level of literacy (ability to read and write). Many young people (mainly men) needed an education in order to work for the emperor during the Manchu Qing Dynasty. More recently, the growth of cities has furthered education among the Manchu.

14 CULTURAL HERITAGE

One of the main Manchu art forms is dancing. In the Hunting Dance, the dancers wear leopard and tiger costumes. Some ride on horseback as they hunt "animals" wearing costumes. Manchu songs are accompanied by a bamboo flute and a drum.

The Octagon Drum Opera is the Manchu version of the famous Chinese Peking Opera.

Famous Manchu figures in the arts include writer Lao She (18991966), comic writer Hou Baolin, and actor Cheng Yanqiu.

15 EMPLOYMENT

Metals, coal, hydroelectric power production, agriculture, and forestry are the main sources of income among the Manchu. Since the end of the nineteenth century, the Manchu homeland has become the center of Chinese heavy industry. Many Manchu are workers and managers in large factories.

16 SPORTS

The Manchu have a long tradition of ice skating. During the long, cold winters in northeast China they skate on rivers and lakes or in skating rinks. Some Manchu skaters have won international fame.

17 RECREATION

Urban Manchus watch television in the evening. They go to the movies about once or twice a month. Adults enjoy Peking opera, chess, gardening, keeping pet birds, and storytelling. Young people like dancing, listening to popular songs, and karaoke (singing for others in public). Recreation is similar in rural areas. However, people see fewer television programs and movies.

18 CRAFTS AND HOBBIES

The Manchus are experts at jade sculpture, bone carving, making small clay and dough figures, and painting the insides of small bottles. They are also known around the world for their ice carving and sculptures.

19 SOCIAL PROBLEMS

Urban Manchus have one of the highest standards of living in China. However, they have lost much of their cultural identity. In contrast, the rural Manchu remain poor because of their long, cold winters, but they have preserved their traditions.

20 BIBLIOGRAPHY

Harrell, Stevan, ed. Cultural Encounters on China's Ethnic Frontiers. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1995.

Heberer, Thomas. China and Its National Minorities: Autonomy or Assimilation? Armonk, N.Y.: M. E. Sharpe, 1989.

Ma Yin, ed. China's Minority Nationalities. Beijing: Foreign Languages Press, 1989.

WEBSITES

Embassy of the People's Republic of China, Washington, D.C. [Online] Available http://www.china-embassy.org/, 1998.

World Travel Guide. China. [Online] Available http://www.wtgonline.com/country/cn/gen.html, 1998.

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man

man / man/ • n. (pl. men / men/ ) 1. an adult human male. ∎  a male worker or employee: more than 700 men were laid off CNN's man in India. ∎  a male member of a sports team: Johnson took the ball past three men and scored. ∎  (men) ordinary members of the armed forces as distinct from the officers: he had a platoon of forty men to prepare for battle. ∎  a husband, boyfriend, or lover: the two of them lived for a time as man and wife. ∎  a male person associated with a particular place, activity, or occupation: a Harvard man I'm a solid union man. ∎  a male pursued or sought by another, esp. in connection with a crime: Inspector Bull was sure they would find their man. ∎ dated a manservant or valet: get me a cocktail, my man. ∎ hist. a vassal. 2. a human being of either sex; a person: God cares for all races and all men. ∎  (also Man) [in sing.] human beings in general; the human race: places untouched by the ravages of man. ∎  [in sing.] an individual; one: a man could buy a lot with eighteen million dollars. ∎  a person with the qualities often associated with males such as bravery, spirit, or toughness: she was more of a man than any of them. ∎  [in sing.] a type of prehistoric human named after the place where the remains were found: Cro-Magnon man. 3. (usu. the Man) inf. a group or person in a position of authority over others, such as a corporate employer or the police: it was a vicarious way of powerless people being able to stick it to the Man. ∎ black slang white people collectively regarded as the controlling group in society: he urged that black college athletes boycott the Man's Rose Bowl. 4. a figure or token used in playing a board game. • v. (manned , man·ning ) [tr.] 1. (often be manned) provide (something, esp. a place or machine) with the personnel to run, operate, or defend it: the firemen manned the pumps and fought the blaze. ∎  provide someone to fill (a post or office): the chaplaincy was formerly manned by the cathedral. 2. archaic fortify the spirits or courage of: he manned himself with dauntless air. • interj. inf. used, irrespective of the sex of the person addressed, to express surprise, admiration, delight, etc., or for emphasis: man, what a show! PHRASES: as —— as the next man as —— as the average person: I'm as ambitious as the next man. as one man with everyone acting together or in agreement: the crowd rose to their feet as one man. be someone's man be the person perfectly suited to a particular requirement or task: for any coloring and perming services, David's your man. be man enough for (or to do) be brave enough to do: who's man enough for the job? he has not been man enough to face up to his responsibilities. make a man out of someone (of an experience or person) turn a young man into a mature adult: I make men out of them and teach them never to let anyone outsmart them. man about town a fashionable male socialite. man and boy dated throughout life from youth: the time when families worked in the fields man and boy. the man in the moon the imagined likeness of a face seen on the surface of a full moon. ∎ fig. used, esp. in comparisons, to refer to someone regarded as out of touch with real life: a kid with no more idea of what to do than the man in the moon. the man in (or on) the street an ordinary person, often with regard to their opinions, or as distinct from an expert: it will be interesting to hear what the man in the street has to say about these latest tax cuts. man of actionsee action. man of the cloth a clergyman. man of God a clergyman. ∎  a holy man or saint. man of honor a man who adheres to what is right or to a high standard of conduct. man of the house the male head of a household. man of letters a male scholar or author. man of the moment a man of importance at a particular time. man of the worldsee world. man's best friend an affectionate or approving way of referring to the dog. a man's man a man whose personality is such that he is as popular and at ease, or more so, with other men than with women. man to man (or man-to-man) 1. in a direct and frank way between two men; openly and honestly: he was able to talk man to man with the delegates | a man-to-man chat. 2. denoting a defensive tactic in a sport such as football or basketball in which each player is responsible for defending against one opponent: Washington's cornerbacks are fast enough to cover man-to-man. men in white coats humorous psychiatrists or psychiatric workers (used to imply that someone is mad or mentally unbalanced): I wondered how much more stupid I could get before the men in white coats would lead me away. separate (or sort out) the men from the boys inf. show or prove which people in a group are truly competent, brave, or mature. to a man without exception: to a man, we have all taken a keen interest in the business.DERIVATIVES: man·less adj.

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"man." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Encyclopedia.com. 18 Oct. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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man

man because a man is born in a stable that does not make him a horse proverbial saying, mid 19th century; sometimes attributed to the Duke of Wellington, who asserted that being born in Ireland did not make him Irish.
man cannot live by bread alone one needs spiritual as well as physical sustenance. Proverbial saying, late 19th century, originally with biblical allusion to Matthew 4:4, ‘Man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word that proceedeth out of the mouth of God.’
a man for all seasons a person who is ready for any situation or contingency, or adaptable to any circumstance; originally, as a description of St Thomas More by Robert Whittington in Vulgaria (1521). Erasmus had applied the idea earlier, describing More in In Praise of Folly (1509) as ‘a man of all hours’.
Man Friday in Daniel Defoe's novel Robinson Crusoe (1719) Crusoe's servant, to whom he usually refers as ‘my man Friday’, named for the day on which Crusoe saved his life. From the early 19th century the term has been used to designate a (male) helper or follower.
man in the moon a mythical person supposed to live in the moon. Inhabitants of the moon were postulated in ancient and Hellenistic Greek texts; the use in English, recorded from Middle English, derives from the imagined semblance of a person or a human face in the disc of the (full) moon. By the mid 16th century, the man in the moon had become proverbial as the type of someone too distant to have any understanding or knowledge of a person's circumstances.
a man is as old as he feels, and a woman as old as she looks proverbial saying, late 19th century; both parts of the proverb are sometimes used on their own.
man is the measure of all things everything can be understood in terms of humankind. The saying is recorded in English from the mid 16th century, but the proverb is found earlier in Greek, and is attributed by Plato to the Greek sophist Protagoras (b. c.485 bc).
Man of Sorrows a name for Jesus Christ, deriving from a prophecy in Isaiah 53:3; in art represented as an image of Christ surrounded by instruments of the Passion.
man proposes, God disposes often now said in consolation or resignation when plans have been disrupted. The saying is recorded in English from the mid 15th century, but early 14th-century French has, ‘for if man proposes evil, God…disposes of it.’
man's extremity is God's opportunity great distress or danger may prompt a person to turn to God for help; proverbial saying, early 17th century.
whatever man has done, man may do anything that has been achieved once can be achieved again. The saying is recorded from the mid 19th century, but there is a similar idea behind a comment (1723) of S. Cranston, recorded in G. S. Kimball Correspondence of Colonial Governors of Rhode Island (1902), ‘But as the Proverb is what hath been may be again.’

See also angry young man, the child is the father of the man, a man is known by the company he keeps, every man for himself, God made the country and man made the town, like master, like man, one man's meat is another man's poison, men, money makes a man, mouse and man, nine tailors make a man, no moon, no man, old man of the mountains, man of straw, white man's burden, white van man, a young man married.

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man

man pl. men human being; adult male OE.; vassal, manservant XII; (dial.) husband XIII. OE. man(n), mon(n), pl. menn (:- *manniz), also manna, monna, corr. to OS., OHG. man (Du. man; G. mann), ON. maðr (g. manns, pl. menn), Goth. manna (g. mans, pl. mans, mannans); the various forms belong to two Gmc. stems *mann-, *mannan-, rel. to Skr. mánu- man, mankind, OSl. mǫźĭ.The prominent sense in OE. was ‘human being’, the words distinctive of sex being wer and wīf, wǣp(n)man and wīfman WOMAN. The sense ‘ship’ (as in Frenchman) appears in XV. Among spec. phr. is man-at-arms (XVI; formerly † man of arms), tr. OF. homme d'armes and à armes. The sense of ‘piece’ used in chess appears c.1400.
Hence man vb. Late OE. (ġe)mannian. manhood, †manhead XIII. mannish † human; masculine XIV; pert. to a grown man XVI; characteristic of a male XVIII. repl. OE. mennisċ, manslaughter XVII. Superseded † manslaught, OE. (Angl.) mannslæht, the second el. being:- Gmc. *slaχitz. f. *salχ- SLAY1.

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Man (town, Côte d'Ivoire)

Man, town (1996 est. pop. 112,600), W central Côte d'Ivoire, at the foot of the Toura Mts. It is an administrative and commercial center for a region producing coffee, cacao, kola nuts, rice, and cassava. Iron ore, bauxite, copper, and gold are mined nearby.

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Man

Man. (1, It.) Short for mano, hand.

(2, Ger.) Short for Manuale, manual (of organ); Man. I = Great; II, Swell; III, Choir; IV, Solo (but occasionally another numeration is used, based on position, i.e. I, Choir; II, Great; III, Swell; IV, Solo).

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Man

Man (Hindī, Pañjābī, ‘one's total being’). Mind, heart, and soul. In Sikhism this bears the connotation of human capriciousness.

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Man

Man. A primordial and cosmic figure, occurring in several religions, but with different emphases. In Hinduism, see NARA.

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man (in anthropology and biology)

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MAN

MAN Acronym for metropolitan area network.

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man

man Zoological term for a human

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man

manAberfan, Adrianne, an, Anne, artisan, astrakhan, ban, began, Belmopan, bipartisan, bran, can, Cannes, Cézanne, Cheyenne, clan, courtesan, cran, dan, Dayan, Diane, divan, élan, Elan, fan, flan, foreran, Fran, Friedan, Gell-Mann, gran, Han, Hunan, Ivan, Jan, Japan, Jinan, Joanne, Kazan, Klan, Kordofan, Lacan, Lausanne, Leanne, Limousin, Louvain, man, Mann, Marianne, Milan, Moran, nan, Oran, outran, outspan, Pan, panne, parmesan, partisan, pavane, pecan, Pétain, plan, Pusan, ran, rataplan, rattan, Rosanne, Sagan, Saipan, saran, scan, scran, sedan, span, spick-and-span, Spokane, Suzanne, Tainan, tan, than, tisane, trepan, van, vin, Wuhan, Xian, Yerevan, Yunnan, Zhongshan •koan • kanban • Seremban •Cardin, Teilhard de Chardin •Rodin • Ramadan • dauphin •turbofan • Afghan • Gauguin •Callaghan

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