The works of Raymond Williams (The Long Revolution, 1961) and E. P. Thompson (The Making of the English Working Class, 1963) have been particularly influential in the development of post-war British cultural theory. Williams's emphasis on culture as a ‘whole way of life’ and Thompson's emphasis on culture as the way in which groups ‘handle’ the raw material of social and material existence opened up new ways of thinking about culture—in particular uncoupling the concept from a narrow literary and aesthetic reference. Both Williams and Thompson studied the lived dimension of culture and the active and collective process of fashioning meaningful ways of life.
The so-called culturalist reading of the term developed by both Thompson and Williams was subsequently challenged by other more obviously structuralist interpretations. These emphasized the external symbolic structures of culture, as embodied in cultural languages and codes, rather than its lived forms. In this formulation culture could be read as a signifying system through which the social world was mapped. The structuralist version of cultural theory was also strongly informed by Louis Althusser's version of Marxism. Althusser offered a reworking of Marxist theories of ideology which gave greater scope to the efficacy of the ideological realm. In particular he emphasized the relative autonomy of the ideological or cultural domain whilst holding on to the principle of the ultimately determining character of economic relations and processes.
The concern to recognize the efficacy of cultural practices in Althusser's writings was further developed within cultural theory by the appropriation of the ideas of Antonio Gramsci. Gramsci's work opened up new ways of conceptualizing the role of culture and cultural practices in class formations and class alliances and, in particular, gave great weight to the role of culture in securing forms of political and moral leadership and authority (hegemony). The influence of Gramsci's ideas was particularly important in helping cultural theory move beyond the impasse created by the tensions between competing culturalist and structuralist perspectives in the 1970s (see, for example, Stuart Hall et al. , Policing the Crisis, 1978
As Gramsci's importance has waned within cultural theory, so that of Michel Foucault has increased. A central thrust of Foucault's influence has been to shape a more discursive understanding of cultural languages and of the interconnection between power and representation (see Sean Nixon , Hard Looks, 1996
). Foucault's influence has also been obvious in arguments about the historically specific character of culture and its development as both an object and instrument of government (see L. Grossberg et al. (eds.) , Cultural Studies, 1992
The interplay between race, ethnicity, and culture has also emerged as a central concern of contemporary cultural theory. This has often been via a critique of the forms of ethnicity assumed within the tradition of British cultural theory associated with Williams and Thompson—or what Paul Gilroy has termed the morbid fascination with Englishness (see his Ain't No Black in the Union Jack, 1987
). It has also challenged the incipient nationalism of conceptions of culture which link it to particular bounded national territories. In place of this, writers such as Gilroy have emphasized instead the transnational movement and mixing of cultures. Cilroy's notion of the ‘Black Atlantic’ represents an attempt to envisage cultural processes outside the restrictions imposed by nationally delimited conceptions of culture. In this sense, it has much in common with Edward Said's work on orientalism, which examines not only the internal dynamics but also the external determinants of cultures. In Said's Orientalism (1978), Western conceptions of culture and civilization are depicted as having been formed against a process of naming and symbolically subordinating the Oriental.
Feminist arguments have also exerted an important influence on recent cultural theory. Looming large here has been the interplay between feminism and psychoanalysis. This has led to much discussion about the ways in which gender identities are formed within cultural languages and through cultural practices. Recent work on memory, fantasy, and gender performance has been especially suggestive (see P. Adams and and E. Cowie , The Women in Question, 1993
; and J. Butler , Bodies that Matter, 1993
). See also CLASS CONSCIOUSNESS; FALSE CONSCIOUSNESS.
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