Mission Indians of California
MISSION INDIANS OF CALIFORNIA
MISSION INDIANS OF CALIFORNIA. Beginning in 1769, the first of twenty-one Franciscan missions was established in California. The missions ranged from San Diego north to San Francisco and were a means for the Spanish to control the Indians. Soldiers rounded up Indians who, once taken inside the missions, became slaves. Those who tried to escape were severely punished; some were killed. Indians' tribal names were usually forgotten, and instead they became known by the names of the missions they served. During the sixty-five years of the missions, Indians were inflicted with disease and despair, and their numbers were depleted by over 80 percent.
Previously these Indians had lived a nomadic life, hunting with bows and arrows and unearthing roots with digging sticks. Under mission control, they were taught Catholicism, ranching, agriculture, and trades such as weaving, blacksmithing, hide tanning, and candle making.
In 1834, thirteen years after Mexican independence from Spain, the missions were dissolved and their lands were turned into huge ranches by settlers. The Indians were technically free, but in fact, only their masters changed, as they were dependent on local ranchers for employment. Today descendants of the Mission Indians live on twenty-eight tiny reservations in southern California.
Jackson, Robert H., and Edward Castillo. Indians, Franciscans, and Spanish Colonization: The Impact of the Mission System on California Indians. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1995.
See alsoIndian Missions ; Tribes: California .
"Mission Indians of California." Dictionary of American History. . Encyclopedia.com. (February 20, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/mission-indians-california
"Mission Indians of California." Dictionary of American History. . Retrieved February 20, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/mission-indians-california
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.