Twenty-one Demands (1915), instrument by which Japan secured temporary hegemony over China. Japan used its declaration of war against Germany (Aug., 1914) as grounds for invading Kiaochow, the German leasehold in Shandong prov., China. Disregarding the Chinese request to withdraw, Japan secretly presented (1915) President Yüan Shih-kai with an ultimatum comprising 21 demands divided into five sections. These provided that Japan assume Germany's position in Kiaochow; that Manchuria and Mongolia be reserved to Japan for exploitation and colonization; that Japan control the main coal deposits of China; that the other powers be excluded from further territorial concessions; and that Japan guide China's military, commercial, and financial affairs. The demands for control of Chinese policy were dropped, partly at the insistence of the United States. The remainder of the demands were accepted by President Yüan after the Japanese threatened to extend their invasion. Treaties were signed (May 25) extending Japan's lease of the Liaotung peninsula (see Liaoning) and of the Manchurian railroads and granting Kiaochow to Japan. The demands, setting a pattern for Japanese domination, were forced on China, but the treaties were not ratified by the Chinese legislature. The Japanese reinforced their claims in 1917 and forced a second agreement from the Chinese in 1918. At the Versailles Conference, Japan, by reason of secret treaties signed in 1917, was awarded the German possessions in Shandong over strong Chinese protest. China refused to sign the Versailles treaty, and this event led directly to the May Fourth Movement of 1919. At the Washington Conference (1921–22), Japan agreed to withdraw its troops from Shandong and restore full sovereignty to China.
"Twenty-one Demands." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (October 20, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/twenty-one-demands
"Twenty-one Demands." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved October 20, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/twenty-one-demands
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.